LONGTOWN, a market-town, and the head of a union, in the parish of Arthuret, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Carlisle, and 309 (N.N.W.) from London; containing 1,990 inhabitants. This place is eminently indebted to the liberality and public spirit of the late Dr. Graham, who was mainly instrumental in raising it from the state of a poor village to its present condition. It is a small town on the south bank of the river Eske, over which is a stone bridge, near the junction of that river with the Liddel. The situation is pleasant and healthy, the houses are neatly built, the streets spacious, and the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells. Many of the lower class are employed in weaving for the manufacturers at Carlisle. The original market, held on Thursday, is almost disused, except for provisions; but there is another on Monday, principally for bacon and butter. A fair takes place on the Thursday before Whit-Sunday, for horses; and statute-fairs on the Thursday in Whitsun-week, and the Thursday in Martinmas, for hiring servants. The county magistrates hold a meeting on the last Thursday in every month; courts leet and baron are held at Easter and Michaelmas, and at the former court constables are appointed. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians. The poorlaw union of Longtown comprises 14 parishes or places, and contains a population of 9,722.
Extract from: A Topographical Dictionary of England comprising the several counties, cities, boroughs, corporate and market towns, parishes, and townships..... 7th Edition, by Samuel Lewis, London, 1848.