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Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Historical Account, 1890

Extract from: Kelly's Directory of Durham, 1890

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, a city and a county of itself, and the see of a bishop, was ordained and created a city under the style of the "City and County of Newcastle-on-Tyne," by Royal Charter, under seal, dated 30th June, 1882, and is a county borough, a river port, parliamentary and municipal borough, assize and market town, head of a poor law union of eleven parishes and of a county court and bankruptcy district, in the Tyneside division of the county, rural deanery of Newcastle, archdeaconry of Northumberland and diocese of Newcastle. The city stands on the northern bank of the river Tyne, 10 miles west from the German Ocean, 275 from London, 117 from Edinburgh, 60 south from Berwick-on-Tweed, 30 north from Darlington, 15 north from Durham, 12 north-west from Sunderland, 34 south-east from Alnwick, 17 south from Morpeth, 10 west from Shields, 30 north-west from Hartlepool, 55 east from Carlisle, 76 north from York, 100 from Leeds, 70 from Scarborough, 110 from Hull and 108 from Glasgow, and is situated on the main line of the North Eastern railway, with branches westward to Carlisle, and east to Tynemouth, Shields and Sunderland, with communications via York to London and by the North British system into Scotland; it is built on the heights and declivities of several lofty eminences, which rise rapidly and abruptly from the shores of the river Tyne, forming a ridge of hills running a considerable distance parallel to the river, along the bank of which stretches an extensive and convenient quay, and on the Durham shore opposite is Gateshead, with which it is closely associated in trade and connected by three bridges. Under the provisions of the Reform Act of 1832, the Parliamentary borough includes the town and county of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with the townships of Byker, Elswick, Heaton, Jesmond and Westgate. Two members have been returned to Parliament since 1282, the "Representation of the People Act," 1867 (30 and 31 Viet. c. 102) and the “Redistribution of Seats Act,” 1885, not having made any change in this respect. Under the provisions of the Local Government Act, 1888, the city becomes a “County borough” for certain purposes.

Municipality.-The municipal history of Newcastle dates from a very early period, and in the reign of Henry I. the burgesses were already in possession of important and well-defined privileges, and were governed by a provost (praepositus); what these privileges were has been fully set forth in records compiled in the reign of Stephen and still extant, and in which the provost is specifically mentioned; of the charter granted to the town by Henry II. no copy now exists, but the nature of its contents may be ascertained from the confirmatory charter of King John, whose numerous grants to the burgesses included, in his 17th year (1215-16), a comprehensive charter, tested at Durham 28th Jan. 1216, which, besides confirming to them the privileges already obtained, added many others, and conferred upon the provost a jurisdiction concurrent with that of the sheriff of Northumberland, in cases of violation of the municipal privileges; in the Close Rolls of 1205-6, mention is made of bailiffs, but these are expressly described as officers of the port only, and they continued to be appointed after the office of provost had been superseded by that of mayor; and eventually, in the 15th century, the remaining functions of the bailiffs were vested in a sheriff chosen by the burgesses; the provost continued to be the chief magistrate of the town down to the year 1233, or later, but the mayorality was certainly established within the ten years succeeding, for in 1243 the mayor of Newcastle appears as one of the custodians of the castle, and from 1251 the list of mayors formally begins. The Municipal borough is coextensive with the Parliamentary limits, Byker being on the east and separated from Newcastle proper by the Ouseburn, Jesmond and Heaton on the north and north-east while Westgate and Elswick form the western portion. By the “Municipal Corporations Act,” 1835 (5 and 6 William IV. c. 76), the old Corporation was dissolved, and Improvement Acts have been passed in 1871 (34 and 35 Viet.) and 1877 (40 and 41 Vict.); more recently the Corporation has been re-constituted and now consists of a mayor, sixteen aldermen and forty-eight town councillors, and the borough is divided in to sixteen wards, each returning three representatives. The Corporation act as the Urban Sanitary Authority. The council appoint the sheriff, town clerk, treasurer and other officers. The Crown appoints the recorder, who is also a justice of the peace. The city has a commission of the peace and separate court of quarter sessions, and a police force.

Water Supply.-The city was first systematically supplied with water by the Whittle Dene Water Company, established in 1845, but the operations of which were confined to Newcastle and Gateshead; the storage capacity of the reservoirs at that time amounted only to about 200,000,000 gallons, but in 1855 there were eight reservoirs at Whittle Dene, covering an area of 160 acres, and two reservoirs at Benwell, all these having a united capacity of of 609 millions of gallons; the water from Whittle Dene flowing by gravitation to filter beds at Low Benwell, then passing into a reservoir; next raised by pumping to the reservoir at Benwell Bank Top, and thence distributed to the higher parts of the town. In 1859 the company constructed a tunnel and aqueduct in order to acquire an additional supply from Hallington and Ryal, the drainage area being increased to 14,240 acres, and the perennial water supply trebled in quantity, and up to 1862 the expenditure of capital on these various works amounted to £380,000. The supply proving still unequal to the increasing demand, the company obtained the services of Mr. Bateman, the eminent engineer, by whom an extended scheme was formulated, at an estimated cost of £161,500; this scheme, however, on its submission to parliament was materially reduced in committee, and eventually carried out on a less ambitions scale. In the ensuing session a bill was passed by which the Whittle Dene Company was incorporated as the “Newcastle and Gateshead Water Company,” the ultimate capital of the company increased to £512,000, and the existing limits of supply extended by taking in a number of additional parishes and places. In 1874 fresh schemes were proposed by Mr. Edward Brown, Mr. Bewick C.E. and the late Ald. R. S. Newall, of Gateshead, but on account of the great difficulties involved they were not entertained. In 1887 it was proposed by Mr. G. W. Laws, Newcastle city engineer, that the undertaking of the company should be assumed and worked by the Corporation of Newcastle, or the Corporations of Newcastle and Gateshead jointly, but on account of financial and other considerations it was decided by a committee of the Corporation that negotiations with this object were at that time unadvisable. The present capacity of the Newcastle and Gateshead Water Company’s supply in the various impounding places is as follows:-

 Resevoir  Gallons
 Colt Crag Reservoir  1,067,888,507
 Little Swinburn Reservoir      34,406,496
 East Hallington Reservoir    685,604,262
 West Hallington Reservoir    743,417,092
 Whittle Dene Reservoirs    530,000,000
 TOTAL:  3,061,316,357

Owing, however, to the difficulty the company has always experienced in providing more than a fraction of this large quantity in times of drought, very extensive works have now (1894) been undertaken, involving an expenditure of £500,000; these works, contracted for by Mr. Tyrie, of Gateshead, are expected to be completed in about a year and a half, the main feature being the bringing of an abundant supply of pure clear water from the river Reed, 41 miles distant, and the construction of a great reservoir at Catcleugh, capable of holding 14,000,000,000 gallons; for these purposes it will be necessary to lay down not less than 26 miles of 30-inch pipes.

Gas is also supplied by a company.

Foundation and Extension.-During the Roman occupation of Britain, Newcastle was the site of a station in the neighbourhood of Collingwood street, a little distance north of the spot where now stands the ancient castle. Along the high ground to the north, about 330 yards from the river, ran the Roman wall-the great mural barrier, 73 ½ miles in length, which the Emperor Hadrian erected A.D. 120, from the mouth of the Tyne to the Solway Firth, as a defence against the Picts and Scots: south of the Roman station a bridge crossed the Tyne, where now stands the bridge connecting Newcastle to Gateshead, and the locality, taking its name from the bridge, was called “Pons AElii,” from “AElius,” the cognomen of Hadrian, After the Romans had departed a colony of monks established themselves at the northern end of the bridge, and from these the place, but slightly extended beyond the limits of the Roman station, was called “Monkchester:” it appears, however, to have been quite insignificant, since William the Conqueror, halting here on returning from his Scottish expedition in 1072, was compelled to obtain provisions for his army from Tynemouth: in 1080, Malcolm of Scotland having ravaged the north of England as far as the Tyne, William dispatched a force into Scotland under the command of his eldest son, Robert Curthose, who, returning here after the expedition, founded a castle upon the high hill overlooking the bridge and the river; and under the shadow of the “New Castle upon Tyne” grew up a community, which has expanded into a vast commercial city, but still retains the name it received from the son of the Conqueror. During the remainder of the reign of the Conqueror, and in the early years of that of his successor, Newcastle, as a fortress, was in the hands of successive Earls of Northumberland; but in 1095, William Rufus, on the rebellion of Robert de Mowbray, then Earl, took the control of the country into his own hands, and furnished the inhabitants of Newcastle with ground and money to build houses, and surrounded the town with a wall; the first extension of the town was probably across the limited space between the castle and the church of St. Nicholas (now the cathedral), founded, in 1091, by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury; then it spread out westward over the present Bailey gate, and subsequently further northwards; the upper town in and about Newgate seems to have arisen in connection with the foundation of several religious houses in this locality, the existence of which is still indicated by the present names of High and Low Friar street, Nun street, Monk street and Friars’ green; in the reign of Stephen, the town was occupied by the Scots, to whom it had been ceded by treaty for a period of sixteen years, and to this date is generally ascribed the erection of the church of St. Andrew; King John moated the castle and erected the cloth market, and before the close of the 13th century Westgate street had been formed, and the church of St. John built, and new sites granted in this quarter to two orders of friars; the enlargement of the town eastwards led to the erection of All Saints’ church in or before 1286, about which time Pilgrim street had been formed, and was connected on the north and east with other houses of friars; the bridge, noticed elsewhere, was probably coeval with the castle; and Pandon, anciently a vill in the manor of Byker, was acquired by the burgesses, under license from the Crown, in 1299. The old walls, naturally following the limits of the ancient borough, probably incorporated a portion of the Roman wall, which ran to the north of St. John’s church across Pudding Chare into the east end of Collingwood street, and then probably, in a line parallel with Mosley street, but the new walls, begun in the reign of Edward I. were planned “so as to include not only all the recently erected streets, but the monastic establishments;” this work, begun about 1280, and according to Leland, by a wealthy merchant, was continued at the cost of the inhabitants and finally completed in the reign of Edward III.; the wall thus erected was 2 miles in circuit, 8 feet thick, and over 12 feet high, and from a detailed sketch of the walls made in 1638, when a Scottish invasion was threatened, and preserved among the State papers at the Record Office, it appears that they began on the west at Close gate, and after proceeding a short distance northwards, ran out in a semi-circular form westwards, with the west gate nearly in the centre of the arc; the wall then continued towards the east, passing outside St. Andrew’s church, near the east end of which was the north gate, and some distance further on Pilgrims’ gate: a little beyond this the wall turned south till it reached a point just above All Saints’ church, where, re-starting at right angles it described a curve to Sandgate, on the river wall; and in the upper part of this curve was Pandon gate: besides the fortified gates, flanked by strong and lofty towers, some of which still remain, there were about 60 bastions, placed at frequent intervals; and a portion of the west wall, with remains of bastions, can yet be seen in Pink lane, and at the back of Bath lane, on the east side, to Herber tower, where it turns northwards, passing to the west of Stowell street, and including Mordon tower, after which it continues with some breaks to the north end of Newgate street, above St. Andrew’s church; another and very fine portion of the wall was exposed in 1881, extending right across Pandon Dene, from the western bank near the Manors to the eastern bank at the Sallyport gate; it is 8 feet thick, at one point 30 feet in height, and constructed throughout of splendid masonry, some of the facing stones being 18 inches long by 12 wide; in pursuance of the scheme of improvements in this quarter carried out by the corporation, a portion of the wall has had to be removed, but the remainder, though hidden by buildings, is still intact. As a fortified town, Newcastle was, from its situation, involved in all the border wars and feuds; and it was generally the appointed place of rendezvous for English troops previous to a descent upon the neighbouring kingdom of Scotland.

The appearance of the city from the higher grounds on the Gateshead side is very striking, and from that point is seen to much advantage. The older streets which skirt the river are curved and undulating, and the ascents and descents are so numerous and inconveniently steep and narrow that no extensive view can be obtained. Many of the houses here are in the antique gabled style of the time of Queen Elizabeth. There are, however, some fine streets in the upper or modern part of the city, where the houses are built of freestone; and the neatness and regularity of the thoroughfares in the suburbs, principally inhabited by merchants and tradesmen, sufficiently indicate its wealth and prosperity. Grey street and West Grainger street, from an architectural point of view, may rank as the finest streets in the city. The latter takes its name from Richard Grainger, a builder of Newcastle, born here of poor parents in 1798, but to whose enterprise and skill the town owes many and great improvements, both in its street communications and architectural character. Under his direction, Eldon square, the Leazes terrace, the Crescent and the Royal arcade were built, the latter, completed in 1831-2, costing £40,000. During the period between Aug. 1834, and Aug. 1839, there were laid out, under his superintendence, nine new streets, including the two mentioned above; at the same time, the new market was built, and opened Oct. 24, 1835; and the other works carried out within the same dates included the erection of a theatre, the Incorporated Companies’ hall, two chapels and other buildings, besides 387 houses of various kinds.

Bridges.-The first bridge across the Tyne was that constructed by Hadrian, A.D. 120, in connection with the Roman station here, and known as “Pons AElii;” this undertaking, which, considering the time, must be regarded as at once bold and adventurous, was carried out in a very effective manner, the stone for the masonry being derived from the immediate locality on both sides of the river; but the roadway, as at Cilurnum, was formed of timber logs laid horizontally across the stone piers: with periodical repairs, Hadrian’s bridge served for several centuries; but in 1248, during a great conflagration in the town, it was destroyed, and on its site rose the mediaeval bridge of the 13th century, for the erection of which contributions were obtained in all three kingdoms through briefs and indulgences granted by the bishops: this bridge, 237 yards long and 15 yards wide, was repaired in 1370, at a cost of over £1,000, and then consisted of 12 obtusely-pointed arches on massive piers, with a continuous line of houses upon it from the south side nearly to the middle, but for the rest part only at the piers, and at the north end was the chapel of St. Thomas: nearly the whole of the bridge being destroyed in the great flood of 1771, it was replaced in 1775 by a new bridge of stone, which in turn was removed on the building of the present structure during 1868-76: the third pier of the removed bridge from the Gateshead side stood on the site of one of the ancient piers, and on clearing away the stonework the remains of the foundations of the mediaeval and Roman bridges, as well as of the later structure, were disclosed: all the piers took the same form, having a cut-water both up and down stream and were built on piles, remaining in each case, but differently disposed: the Roman pier was much the smallest, being only 34 feet in extreme length, over the two pointed ends, and 16 feet wide, while the medieval pier was about 60 feet long and 40 wide, and the modern pier 60 feet in length, with a breadth of only 30 feet: the carpentry of the Roman framework was found to be superior to that of either of the others; the oak in each instance was fairly preserved, that used for the Roman piles having become a jet black: one of these, shod with iron to a point, is now in the museum at Ushaw College: some carved stones were also found, but on the removal of the mediaeval bridge in 1771, silver and brass Roman coins were met with, dating from Trajan (A.D. 98) to Severus (A.D. 193), the later ones having probably been deposited in the course of repairs: in the masonry of the third pier from the south side of the bridge taken down in 1861 was found an inscription on copper, inclosed in glass, and recording the history of its erection: in the roadway opposite this pier a blue stone marked the boundary of the counties of Durham and. Northumberland: two arches of the mediaeval bridge, one on each side the river, still exist; that at the north end is of 21 feet span, with bevelled ashlar ribs; the other, at the Gateshead end, is now under Bridge street.

There now are five bridges over the Tyne within a distance of 4 miles.

The hydraulic swing bridge across the Tyne occupies, as stated above, the site of the Roman bridge and its successors, and was begun in 1868, under the provisions of an Act of Parliament, obtained in 1861 by the Tyne Improvement Commissioners. The foundations consist of iron cylinders, sunk to the solid rock 60 feet below high-water mark, and filled with cement concrete: the bridge comprises one large centre pier, two mid-stream piers and two abutments, and, like the High Level bridge, it is divided into six spans, placed so as to correspond with those of Stephenson’s great work. The waterway spans are four in number, the two which open simultaneously from the centre of the bridge each giving £103 feet waterway for vessels: from abutment to abutment the bridge is 530 feet in length; the roadway is 22 feet wide, and the two side footpaths each 8 feet 6 inches, the total breadth over the hand rails being 48 feet: the swing portion of the bridge measures from end to end 281 feet, and has a total weight of 1,450 tons, which turns upon a ring of 40 wheels, and has been tested to bear safely a load of 60 tons moving on four wheels: in the centre of the bridge, upon four girders crossing the roadway, is the elevated valve house platform, above which is the lighthouse, which contains a No. 5 light: the hydraulic and steal machinery by which the bridge is swung is placed in the centre pier underneath the roadway, every portion being in duplicate: the steam engines are each of 20 horse power, and the bridge is worked from the valve platform, and though the dead weight is 1,450 tons, by the pressure of the water into the centre pivot the whole of this ponderous mass can be swung round in about 90 seconds. The ironwork was entirely supplied by Sir W. G. Armstrong and Co. and cost upwards of £100,000, an additional outlay of about the same amount being involved in the construction of the other portions of the bridge, which was opened for ordinary traffic on the 15th June, 1876; the swing portion being first used on July 17th following, when the “Europa, ’’ of the Royal Italian navy, passed through to ship at Elswick a 100-ton gun: the whole of the movements necessary for the opening and shutting of the bridge can be performed by one man.

The North Eastern railway crosses the Tyne by a bridge at Scotswood; and in 1850 the great chain of railway communication from north to south was completed by the building of the High Level bridge from Newcastle to Gateshead, a magnificent example of scientific engineering, which crosses the Tyne at a point directly south of the castle, about 220 yards above the town or swing bridge, and spans the valley of the Tyne, which is here 514 feet broad: it consists of six arches of open ironwork, each 125 feet span, resting on lofty stone piers; on the top is the railway, and underneath, at the springing of the arches, is a common roadway for carriages, horses and pedestrians, for which a toll is charged, the whole forming two distinct bridges, one above the other; the bridge is 1,337 feet long and 32 feet wide, the height from high-water mark to the line of the railway being 112 feet, and to the carriage way 85 feet. The plans were prepared by Robert Stephenson, and the whole cost of the erection, land and approaches, was £491,153. At the northern extremity of this bridge a primitive locomotive has been placed as a memorial of the early days of railway engineering; it is known as “George Stephenson’s No. 1.” In the year 1831 the handsome suspension bridge at Scotswood, for carriage traffic and foot passengers, was constructed about 350 yards south-east of the North Eastern railway bridge; and in 1867 a company was formed, with a capital of £40,000, for building Redbeugh bridge, which crosses the river from a point below the Shot tower, on the Newcastle side, to a point near Redheugh Hall, on the Gateshead side, about half a mile higher up the stream than the High Level bridge: this bridge consists of three river spans and eleven land arches, and was opened for traffic in May, 1871. The late Sir Thomas Bouch was the chief engineer.

Across the Ouseburn, a tributary of the Tyne, is the Ouseburn bridge of five elliptical arches, erected by the Corporation: the causeway is 56 feet above the bed of the stream and 37 feet 6 inches above high-water mark, and the length of the bridge is 112 yards: through communication is given by means of this bridge from the Quay side to St. Lawrence and Walker.

The Ouseburn is also crossed by a viaduct of the North Eastern railway.

Byker bridge, a viaduct across the Ouseburn valley, was erected by a limited liability company, at a cost of £89,000, and opened on the 19th of October, 1878, connecting New Bridge street, at the Red Barns, with Byker, at about 50 yards from the Shields road: the bridge has 22 arches, and, with the exception of the stone parapet, is built of brick: the height in the centre is 112 feet, and the length 450 yards, This bridge furnishes the means of communication between Newcastle and Byker.

The Glasshouse bridge also crosses the Ouseburn near its confluence with the Tyne: it is a low single arch, erected in 17th century.

Across Jesmond Dene, at Benton Bank, in the suburb of Jesmond, a high level bridge has been erected by Lord Armstrong, at a cost of £30,000, and presented by him to the borough: it is an elegant iron structure, supported by metal pillars resting on stone basements: the stone abutments are terraced.

Denton bridge spans the Denton bum by the Roman wall, and there are numerous ferries.

The Quay of Newcastle, which has for many generations been the great terminus of its river traffic, has been widened and extended till it now forms a noble thoroughfare: its length from the Swing bridge to the little stream called the Ouseburn is about 1,540 yards; the greater portion of it is constructed upon cast-iron cylinders sunk to a depth of 38 feet below low-water mark, and filled with concrete, and a river wall, composed of massive stone blocks, gives it an appearance of great solidity and strength. A considerable stretch of the river at the Quay side has been dredged to a depth of from 20 to 22 feet below low water, thus enabling vessels of great size to be moored in safety. The mechanical appliances on the Quay are of a substantial and comprehensive character: there are several cranes, fixed and travelling; one of the former lifts 20 tons, another 60 tons, and the largest is capable of raising 80 tons; this latter is worked by Sir W. G. Armstrong and Co.’s hydraulic machinery, and the motive power generated in connection with it is transmitted to smaller hydraulic cranes in the river-side sheds and warehouses. A double line of railway in connection with the North Eastern system runs the whole length of the Quay, and the loading and discharging of ships is conducted with great ease and rapidity.

At the western end of the Quay, between the Swing and High Level bridges, is a spacious fish market with a timber quay projecting into the river, for the unloading of fishing smacks.

The river Tyne, by the River Tyne Improvement Act, 1850, was transferred from the Newcastle corporation to the control of a body of Commissioners, to which Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth and Jarrow send members to co-operate with those from Newcastle and the representatives of the payers of the dues originally levied by the Newcastle Trinity House, but transferred to the Commissioners by the Tyne Act, 1875, Through the dredging operations carried on by the Commissioners, the river has been rendered navigable for large vessels for at least ten miles of its course. In one year considerably above 5,000,000 tons of matter were removed from the bed of the river, and this great enlargement of the channel had the effect of determining the removal of the old Tyne bridge, in order that another might be substituted, such as would admit of the passage of sailing vessels of over 500 tons and steamers of 1,200 tons, above the bridge; the river has also been improved at its mouth by the construction of the North and South piers at Tynemouth and South Shields respectively, to protect vessels from the prevalent and destructive gales from the N.E. and S.E. as well as to facilitate the removal of the bar: both these piers are of solid materials in consequence of their exposed position, and they were completed in 1893.

The port of Newcastle comprises the river Tyne northward from mid-stream between the eastern ends of Jarrow quay and Whitehall Point sand, and is one of the most ancient and important in Britain, and owes its commercial prosperity to the almost inexhaustible mines of coal in the district which surrounds it, the presence of which maintains a considerable number of different trades and manufactures. There are no docks actually in Newcastle, the Quay being the great place for shipping, and there are staiths on the river for loading coal; at North and South Shields there are commodious docks. Fishing boats and implements belonging to this port are distinguished by the letters "N. E."

Large steam vessels and regular traders are constantly employed in the Newcastle trade with London, Aberdeen, Leith, Glasgow, Dundee, Hull, Yarmouth, Ipswich; as well as with New York, Montreal, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Ghent, Malmo, Copenhagen, Stettin, St. Petersburg, and other continental ports. About 14,500 vessels sow (1894) enter the port yearly, of a tonnage of 6,561,000, and 4,400 ships clear from Newcastle for British possessions and foreign countries with a gross tonnage of 2,810,000; vessels belonging to the port of Newcastle number 478, tonnage 331,025.

The port is also conveniently situated for the export trade, which commenced towards the end of the 14th century, for by a charter given in 1350, a licence was granted to the burgesses to dig for pit coal: it was about this time coals were first sent hence to London; they were then only partially used by several trades, such as smithing and dyeing, great objection being made to the smoke, which was regarded as injurious to health, and Edward I. in consequence, nearly abolished the use of coal fires in London; coals were, however, again greatly used in the time of Charles I.; and from that period, through the extension of manufactures and increase of population, immense quantities are consumed all over the kingdom: one-fourth of the whole raised in the United Kingdom is obtained from Northumberland and Durham, and the North Eastern railway from these counties carried, in 1893, 10,261,232 tons: the chief exports of coal, both foreign and coastwise, are made from the rivers Tyne, Wear and Tees, the tonnage of coal and coke shipped coastwise from Newcastle being, in 1893, 4,848,618 tons: the quantity exported to foreign countries in the same year was 6,341,618 tons.

The principal exports besides coal are iron, chemicals, flint and plate glass, hardware, white and red lead, colours, earthenware, pig and sheet lead, rope, copper, coke, lampblack, fire bricks, retorts, cement, soap, grindstones and machinery. The imports consist of timber, hoops, grain, esparto grass, fruit, cattle and ores; peat litter, wines, sugar, hay and straw, barytes, baskets, flour, cheese, butter; also salt and other materials for the use of iron, copper and chemical manufactures.

The industries here and in the neighbourhood comprise shipbuilding, the river Tyne being second in order of production to the Clyde, and in 1893, 566,498 tons of shipping were launched on this river; locomotive and marine engines, bridge work, steam engines and machinery, heavy ordnance, private carriages and harness are leading manufactures; in addition are lead smelting and refining, the manufacture of red lead, sheet and pipe lead and patent shot; crown, plate, sheet, flint, stained and other glass and earthenware; chemical manures, alkali, cement, bricks and tiles, fire bricks, retorts and crucibles; tar, coke, turpentine, colours, iron castings, and works in cast and wrought iron and steel and brass; files, nails, shovels, spades, and other tools, paper, malt, grindstones and millstones, hemp and wire rope, sails, cables and anchors, and tanning and shoe manufacturing.

The Elswick engineering works, founded in 1847 by the present Lord Armstrong, have, since the period of the Crimean War, when the manufacture of the Armstrong gun was begun, rapidly increased, and now occupy an area of over 60 acres, with a river frontage of about a mile, and employ on an average 1,000 men. In 1882 an amalgamation was effected with the firm of Messrs. C. Mitchell and Co. shipbuilders, of Walker-on-Tyne, with a capital of £2,000,000, under the title of “Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell and Co. Limited.” The steel works at Elswick were opened in 1883. Ships of war complete with their armament are launched from these works.

George Stephenson, in the year 1824, founded in Newcastle the first factory for the production of locomotive engines, and in a competition the “Rocket,” constructed by Stephenson and Co. was awarded the premium of £500 offered by the directors of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, as this engine accomplished the then astonishing speed of between twenty-four and thirty miles an hour.

The Central Railway station and hotel for the North Eastern and the North British railway companies, erected at a cost of £130,000, and opened by her Majesty in 1849, is a fine stone building in the Doric style, situated in Neville street. It contains offices for the transaction of the business of the two companies: the platforms are large and divided by railings and the roof is in three divisions, supported by iron columns: in 1889 the whole of the station and lines were extended and re-organized and in order to the completion of the work several streets were partially or wholly removed. The goods station in Forth banks, erected in 1874, from the design of T, E. Harrison esq. is 460 feet in length and has a width of 340 feet, and an area of 4 ½ acres: the offices occupy the east end, and are reached by a staircase which leads to a verandah, running the entire length of the building, at a height of 30 feet: the roof is in seven divisions, resting upon the outer walls and upon huge iron columns, with flying buttresses; the station is now (1893-4) undergoing extensive alterations, the areas of the roof and platform being doubled, and the number of platforms increased from 9 to 15; a new and well appointed hotel has been erected and the former hotel converted into new booking offices; the machinery is most perfect, and is worked by hydraulic power: the warehouses or cellars extend the whole length and breadth of the station, and are occupied by the Burton and Scotch brewers. The main line of the North Eastern crosses the river Tyne by the High Level bridge. Trafalgar station, in Trafalgar street, also belongs to the North Eastern Company. There is a passenger station for the North Shields railway in the Manors. The terminus of the Newcastle and Morpeth section of the North, Eastern railway is in Picton place, New Bridge street: this line traverses the east coast of Northumberland, and joins the Wansbeck railway at Morpeth, thus having communication with the North British and Scottish lines of railway.

The Newcastle and Tynemouth, or riverside line, crosses the Ouseburn by a viaduct. In 1886-7 another set of rails was laid as far as Heaton Junction, necessitating the widening of this viaduct and the rebuilding of the stations at Manors and Heaton Junction, the entire work costing £150,000.

Westward, the Newcastle and Carlis’e railway is extended across the Tyne river by the Scotswood bridge. The Derwent Valley line also crosses the river by the same bridge.

In pursuance of the Bishoprics Act of 1878, the diocese of Newcastle was founded by an Order in Council, May 23, 1882, and consists of Northumberland, the counties of the towns of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Berwick-upon-Tweed, and the ancient civil parish of Alston, with its chapelries, in Cumberland; and the parish church of St. Nicholas, at Newcastle, was designated as the cathedral church. The endowment of the see is derived from the following sources £1,000 yearly, taken from the income of the Bishop of Durham, and the interest of the following sums: the Hedley bequest, amounting to about £18,000; the Duke of Northumberland’s gift, £10,000; Thomas Spencer esq. of Newburn Steel works, £10,000; the Bishop of Durham, £3,000; the Dowager Duchess of Cleveland, £2,000; the Marquis of Londonderry, Mrs. Abbot, W. D. Cruddas and John Hall esqs. £1,000 each; the total amount of money subscribed being upwards of £60,000. The diocese contains two archdeaconries, Northumberland and Lindisfarne, eleven deaneries, five chaplaincies and seven conventional districts and 159 benefices, and 34 livings are in the gift of the bishop.

The Right Rev. Ernest Roland Wilberforce D.D, was consecrated as the first bishop, on the 25th of July, 1882.

Benwell Tower, the residence of the bishop, situated at Benwell, 2 miles north-west, was presented to the see by John William Pease esq. banker, of Newcastle; the mansion, valued at £12,000, has been furnished by subscriptions, by the ladies of Newcastle.

The cathedral church of St. Nicholas, standing on an eminence, near the approach to the High Level bridge, was founded in 1091 by St. Osmund, bishop of Salisbury (1078-99), and destroyed by fire in 1216: the present cruciform structure dates from 1359, and is chiefly in the Decorated and Perpendicular styles, consisting of clerestoried choir and nave with continuous aisles, transepts, north, west and south-west porches, and a Perpendicular tower, at the angles of which are octagonal turrets, ornamented with crocketed pinnacles, from the bases of which spring four curved flying buttresses, which meet together at the top and support an elegant lantern turret, surmounted by a tall spirelet, the summit of which is 192 feet from the ground: the tower contains an illuminated clock and a new peal of 11 bells, hung in 1893, at a cost of £2,414: the choir of four bays is separated from its aisles by arcades of plainly-moulded arches, with continuous hood mouldings on octagonal piers, the flanks of the arches dying into the piers, which are without capitals; the easternmost bay, now cut off from the rest of the choir by the erection of the new reredos, has been converted into a chapel, or retro-choir, and named the Chapel of the Incarnation; it includes the great Perpendicular east window, which is filled with stained glass, and contains a fine painting by Tintoretto (Giacomo Robusti) of “Our Lord washing the disciples’ feet,” presented by Sir Matthew White Ridley bart. in 1818, and formerly in the south transept: the splendid reredos, presented by Percy Westmacott esq. at a cost of £4,000, is designed on the model of the great mediaeval screens at Winchester and St. Albans; it is about 20 feet high and 14 feet wide, constructed of very fine unpolished Uttoxeter alabaster, and has splayed wings of Caen stone, richly panelled, connecting it with the side walls of the choir; immediately above the altar ledge, which is of red Italian marble, are nine canopied niches, containing as many angels of white alabaster, bearing shields with emblems of the Passion; over these runs a carved horizontal cornice above which the main composition of the reredos is arranged in two tiers of canopied niches; the central niche of the lower tier contains a figure of Our Lord crowned and enthroned in majesty, the right hand being raised in benediction and the left supporting an orb, and on either side are two of the four evangelists; in the top row are the Venerable Bede, St. Cuthbert, St. Benedict Biscop and St. Aidan; on either side the central portion of the screen are projecting wings, with three tiers of canopied niches, those on the north side containing figures of St. Oswald, St. Gabriel and St. Nicholas, and those on the south St. Edwin, St. Mary and St. Paulinus; all these figures are protected by tabernacle work and canopies of the richest design, each niche having besides a groined roof of intricate tracery; the whole composition is crowned by a cornice with grapes and vine leaves, a pierced parapet and a cresting of vine leaves: on either side of the central figures a vertical series of niches is filled with figures of the Virtues; all the figures have been specially modelled and sculptured by Mr. J. Sherwood Westmacott, of London, and are remarkable for their grace, power and beauty: the side arches of the sacrarium are filled by canopied sedilia, four on either side, westward of which are open screens of Caen stone of very rich character, with crocketed pinnacles, and both these and the sedilia are finished with a cornice and cresting similar to that of the reredos: the communion table, of oak and cedar, retains the marble slab of the former table: a marble pavement of black and white squares has been laid over the whole area of the choir, and the sacrarium is partly inclosed by a low fencing of alabaster, relieved by open pierced oblong panels and a carved banding above: the bishop’s throne, placed on the south side of the choir, in front of the eastern pier, is raised on three steps of black marble, and consists of a high open seat, with projecting canopy, crowned with lofty octagonal tabernacle work of oak, terminating in an elegant crocketed spirelet, rising to a height of 36 feet from the pavement: the desk in front of the throne is finely carved; the ends bear the arms of the see impaling those of the bishop, and have massive carved poppy heads: a silver gilt cross, candlesticks, and flower vases and frontals for the different seasons, all specially designed by the architect, have been presented by various donors: the sacrarium is lighted by two very handsome brass gaseliers, from designs by the architect: the choir and canons’ stalls were fixed in 1887: the choir is separated from the nave by a light open wood screen in the Perpendicular style, with a wide central opening and four divisions on each side; the upper portion has pointed arches filled with delicate tracery, above which runs a straight cornice with highly wrought cresting: a new pulpit of stone and alabaster, richly carved, was erected in 1887, at a cost of £700: the nave of four bays has arcades similar to those in the choir, except that the hood mouldings meet in carved heads: both nave and choir have open timber roofs, carried on arched principals springing from corbels in the clerestory: at the east end of the nave, in front of the easternmost piers, are two monuments of great size and height; that on the north side, erected to Sir M. W. Ridley bart. who died 14 July, 1836, includes a life-size classic statue in white marble, by Bacon, standing on a high base in front of a lofty pyramidal marble backing; the other is to Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood, second in command at the battle of Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 1805, who died 7 March, 1810, when the title became extinct: the memorial consists of a draped backing on which hang a sword and shield, and in front, on a pedestal, is a bust; in the church is also a monument to the Rev. Hugh Moises, master of the Grammar School in the 18th century, Collingwood, and John and William Scott, afterwards respectively Lords Eldon and Stowell, being then pupils; in the Bewick chapel are memorials, by Baily, to members of that family, and some fine examples of mediaeval grave covers, 14 in number; the most perfect of these, c. 1250, bears a foliaged cross, the head of which is formed by four nearly complete circles placed in the angles of the cross, all the terminations ending in leaves; the stem is also foliated, and near the head are carved a pair of shears and a book; another, c. 1350, has a stepped floriated cross, with a key beside it: Gilbert Heron, gent, a prisoner in the castle, was buried at this church in 1587: the stained west window was erected in 1886, as a memorial to his parents, by John Hall esq. who also, in 1889, presented two stained windows for the south aisle: the organ, placed in the north transept, cost £3,500: the restoration of the cathedral was commenced in 1873 and finished in 1876, under the direction of the late Sir G. Gilbert Scott R.A. at a cost of nearly £22,000, exclusive of £8,368 for restoring the tower: there are sittings for 1,800 persons. The register dates from the year 1559. The living is a vicarage, to which is attached the presentation to three livings in the city, average tithe rent-charge £314, net yearly value £517, including glebe (£280), with residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1882 by the Rev. Arthur Thos. Lloyd M.A. of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, hon.

D.D. of Durham University, hon. canon and rural dean of Newcastle, chaplain to the Bishop of Newcastle, proctor in convocation, and surrogate. In a building on the south side of and adjoining the church was formerly kept Dr.

Thomlinson’s library, containing many curious and theological works, left to the parish by him; the existing building was erected in 1736 by Sir Walter Blackett bart. who also endowed it with a sum of money for the payment of a librarian; the books are now transferred to the City free library.

All Saints’ (parish) church, at the bottom of Pilgrim street, and erected in 1790, on the site of the ancient church of All Hallows, founded in the 12th century, is a building of circular form, with a Doric portico and a lofty tower, with tall and elegant spire, containing a peal of 8 bells: there are 2,000 sittings. The register commences in 1600, and contains the names of William Scott, afterwards Lord Stowell born at Heworth, 17 Oct. 1745, and his brother, John Scott, born 4 June, 1751, and subsequently Earl of Eldon, and Lord Chancellor. The living is a vicarage, average tithe rent-charge £3, net yearly value £254, with residence, in the gift of the vicar of Newcastle, and held since 1890 by the Rev. Owen Charles Carr M.A. and L.M. of University College, Durham.

St. Andrew’s (parish) church, situated on the west side of Newgate street, and supposed to be the oldest church in Newcastle, is an edifice of stone, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts and a large but low tower, containing 6 bells: it was damaged very much during the siege of the town by the Parliamentary army in 1644, but was thoroughly restored in 1867, at a cost of £3,600, and has seven stained windows: the east window, erected in 1866, is a memorial to the Rev. W. Dodd M.A. many years incumbent of the parish; and there are others to Mr. and Mrs. Harbottle, Mr. William Wailes, to the mother and sister of Archdeacon Waters, erected by him in 1875, and to J. H. and Mrs. Philipson: on a pillar in the church is a brass plate, stating that it was erected before A.D. 1100: in the church are three fine examples of grave covers: there are 1,000 sittings. The register dates from the year 1592. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £283, with residence, in the gift of the vicar of Newcastle, and held since 1886 by the Rev. John Moore Lister M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford, and surrogate.

St. John the Baptist’s (parish) church, Grainger street west, Westgate road, is an ancient edifice of stone in the Early English and later styles, with some remains of Norman work, and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts and an embattled tower with four pinnacles, containing 8 bells and a clock; two of the buttresses are Norman work, of about the same date as the castle: there is an ancient font, and several stained windows: the church was restored in 1861, at a cost of upwards of £6,000, under the direction of Mr. Edward Spoor, architect, when the galleries were removed, the plastered ceilings taken down and the roof opened, and a stone bearing the arms of Robert Rhodes, a benefactor to the church, with an invocatory inscription, was renewed, the original being placed in the museum of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries: there are seats for 1,000 persons. John Cunningham, the poet, who died here Sept. 18, 1773, is buried in the churchyard. The register dates from the year 1587. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of the Vicar of Newcastle, and held since 1885 by the Rev. Isaac William Milner M.A. of University College, Durham.

In 1892 two portions of St. John’s parish were annexed to St. Nicholas parish for ecclesiastical purposes.

St. Ann’s is an ecclesiastical parish, formed Feb. 14,1843, from the parish of All Saints; the church, in the City road, was erected by the Corporation of Newcastle in 1768, on the site of an ancient chapel of the same name, and is a building of stone in the Italian style, consisting of chancel, nave and an embattled tower with lofty spire: it was thoroughly restored in 1876, at an expense of £1,500: there are 410 sittings. The register dates from the year 1768. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £243, with residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1892 by the Rev. William Bernard East L.Th, of Hatfield Hall, Durham University, and surrogate.

St. Cuthbert’s parish was formed Aug. 17, 1877, out of the parish of All Saints and St. Nicholas. The church, in Melbourne street, erected at a cost of £7,300, and consecrated in 1881, is an edifice of Ted brick, with stone dressings, in the Early English style and affords 450 sittings. The register dates from the year 1879. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £300, from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Newcastle alternately, and held since 1877 by the Rev. William Edward Nowell D.D. of University College, Durham.

Shieldfield is an ecclesiastical parish, formed Feb, 7, 1862, from the parish of All Saints. Christ church, erected in 1861, at a cost of £6,000, is an edifice in the Gothic style, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, and a tower with spire, containing one bell: there are sittings for 450 persons. The register dates from the year 1861. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1892 by the Rev. Herbert Lunn M.A. of Jesus College, Cambridge, surrogate. The area is 80 acres.

St. Jude’s, Shieldfield, is an ecclesiastical parish, formed July 1, 1892, from Christ church, Shieldfield and Jesmond; the church was built in 1891, at a cost, exclusive of site, of £3,065, from the designs of Mr. A. B. Plummer, diocesan surveyor of Newcastle; it is a building of brick, consisting of chancel and nave, and affords 500 sittings. The register dates from the year 1892. The living is a vicarage, yearly value £150, in the gift of five trustees, and held since 1892 by the Rev. Charles Digby Seymour, of Trinity College, Dublin.

St. Luke the Evangelist is a parish, formed in November, 1893, from St. Andrew; the church, in Claremont street, Moor Edge, formerly a chapel of ease to St Andrew’s, was erected in 1885-6, at a cost of £3,000, and licensed by the Bishop in 1887: it consists at present only of chancel and transepts, and affords 500 sittings. The register dates from the year 1893. The living is a perpetual curacy, net yearly value £260, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1893 by the Rev. Robert Raggett M.A. of Oxford University. The population is 4,500.

St. Matthew’s parish was formed July 13, 1869, from the parish of St. John, The church, in Summerhill place, was erected in 1878: the western portion of the aisles, and the upper stage of the tower are still (1894) incomplete: there are 600 sittings. The register dates from the year 1870. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £294, with residence, in the gift of the Crown and Bishop of Newcastle alternately, and held since 1883 by the Rev. Oliver Churchyard B.A. of the University of London, hon. canon of Newcastle, and surrogate.

St. Peter’s is an ecclesiastical parish, formed May 14, 1844, from the parish of St. Andrew. The church, in Oxford street, erected in 1843, is a building of stone in the Early English and Decorated styles, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and a tower with spire, together 157 feet in height, and containing one bell: over the communion table are three oil paintings representing the Crucifixion: there are 23 stained windows, and sittings for 1,130 persons. The register dates from the year 1843. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £300, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1891 by the Rev. John Wilkinson M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford, and surrogate.

The Catholic diocese of Hexham and Newcastle comprises Northumberland, Cumberland, Durham and Westmorland.

St. Mary’s Catholic cathedral, in Clayton street west completed and dedicated in 1844, is a building of stone, from the designs of Mr. Pugin, in the Decorated style of the 14th century, and consists of choir, nave of five bays, aisles, Lady chapel at the east end of the south aisle, chapel of the Blessed Sacrament at the east end of the north aisle, and a tower with spire, 226 feet in height: the choir is separated from the nave by a magnificent rood screen: the reredos and pulpit are of Caen stone: all the windows are stained: the east window was given by the Dunn family: the church is seated with open benches for 1,000 persons.

The Catholic church, dedicated to St. Andrew, in Worswick street, is a building of stone in the Gothic style, consisting of chancel, nave and north aisle: there are three stained windows above the altar, and a very fine canopied reredos of carved oak adorns the Lady altar. In 1892 a new altar of oak was erected in the north aisle in honour of St. Francis.

The Catholic church, dedicated to St. Dominic, Red Barns, erected in 1873, from the designs of Messrs. Dunn and Hansom, at a cost of £15,000, is a cruciform building in the Romanesque style, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts and a tower, as yet incomplete, but containing a fine bell, weighing 25 cwt.

St. Michael’s Catholic school chapel, erected in 1873, in Clumber street, is a building of stone in the Modern Gothic style, with presbytery attached, and will seat 700 scholars.

The Presbyterian church, in Burdon terrace, built in 1888, at a cost of £10,500, is an edifice of stone, consisting of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, transepts, and a tower at the south-east angle, 90 feet high: there are 860 sittings. Attached is a lecture hall, which will hold 500 persons.

Dissenting congregations in this town are very numerous. There are Baptist, Congregationalist, Wesleyan, Primitive Methodist, Methodist New Connexion, United Methodist Free Church, Swedenborgian, Catholic Apostolic, Sandemanian and Unitarian chapels. There are also other congregations without chapels, and there is a meeting house for the Society of Friends.

Bath Lane Nonconformist church, in Bath lane and Corporation street, erected at a cost of £3,500, is a building in the Gothic style, with tower and spire: there are sittings for 1,250 persons.

The Unitarian church, New Bridge street, is a building in the Early English style, and has several stained windows: there are boys’ and girls’ schools attached.

The Catholic Apostolic (Irvingite) church, in Gloucester street, is a building in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave and aisles, and will seat between 300 and 400 persons.

The Christian Lay church, in Pine street, is an edifice of brick with stone dressings in the Gothic style, and was erected in 1884, at a cost of £1,000: it will seat 500 persons.

St. Paul’s Congregational church, Westgate road, built in 1840 as an episcopal church, under the auspices of the Rev. H. W. Wright M.A. then vicar of St. John’s, and purchased in 1854 by the Independents, with the adjoining ground, for £1,600, is believed to be the only place of worship in the kingdom which has been transferred from the Anglican Church to the Nonconformists: it is an edifice in the Italian style, and the Royal arms, two pulpits, Corporation pew &c. still remain: the upper part of the tower was destroyed by lightning: the communion plate in use is that once held by an ancient and extinct Presbyterian church in the Castle garth: the church will seat 750 persons.

St. James’ Congregational church, in Northumberland road, erected in 1883, from designs by Mr. T. Lewis Banks, of London and Whitehaven, at a total cost, including the site and schools, of £48,500, is a cruciform building in the Early English style: the old chapel, in Blackett street, was sold to the Young Men’s Christian Association for the sum of £6,650: the church will seat about 1,100 persons. The schools and class rooms provide space for 650 scholars.

For full list of places of worship, see pp. 195-6.

Cemeteries:-St. Andrew’s and Jesmond Cemetery, on the North road, was formed in 1857, and covers an area of 10 acres: there are two detached mortuary chapels and an entrance lodge: it is under the control of a burial board of 13 members.

St. Nicholas Cemetery, off Westgate road, at the back of the Union workhouse and about 1 ½ miles from the Cathedral, was formed in 1868, and covers an area of 6 acres: there are two mortuary chapels, united at the angles by other buildings; it is under the control of a Burial Board.

All Saints’ Cemetery, in Jesmond road, covers an area of 10 acres and has two mortuary chapels placed on either side the entrance: it is controlled by a Burial Board of 9 members, formed in 1853.

St. John’s, Westgate and Elswick Cemetery, in Elswick road, about 1 ½ miles from St. John’s church, was formed in 1857, and covers an area of 20 acres: there are two mortuary chapels united by a covered archway: it is controlled by a Burial Board of 27 members.

The Byker and Heaton Cemetery, at Benton Park, bounded by the Benton road on the west, and the Dark lane on the north, was formed in 1890, at a cost of £14,000, and covers an area of 12 acres, surrounded by a wall 8 feet high, with palisading: there are two mortuary chapels in the Early English style, with spires 80 feet high, erected from designs by Mr. J. W. Taylor, architect, of Newcastle: at the entrance gates on the Benton road is a house for the superintendent: the cemetery is governed by a Burial Board of 18 members.

Newcastle-on-Tyne General Cemetery, in Jesmond road, was formed in 1836, by a company, and covers an area of 12 acres: it has two mortuary chapels.

Sidgate, now Percy street, was the site in the 17th century of a cemetery known as “the Quakers Burying Place;” the spot is now (1894) in St. Thomas’s street, and here were buried several of the Durant family, who had property in Sidgate, including the Rev. William Durant M.A. lecturer at St. Nicholas’ church, ejected in 1662. and died in 1681; and John Durant M.D. d. 1683: in 1786 the ground was privately purchased and inclosed, and subsequently became the playground of a private school.

Collegiate.-The University of Durham College of Medicine was founded in 1851, and admitted into connection with the University Jan. 27th, 1852, and in 1870 became a College of the University: students of this college residing at Durham are subject to the same discipline as other students of the University; and if pursuing their course at Newcastle, they are under the control of the President and Council of the college: the college buildings, situated in Northumberland road, and designed by Messrs. Dunn, Hansom and Dunn, of Newcastle, in the Tudor Gothic style, are of brick, with terra cotta dressings and stone mullioned windows: the site is 1 acre in extent, and the buildings are intended, when complete, to surround an open quadrangle, but at present only the main or north front, in Northumberland road, and the east wing, which contains the anatomical department, have been erected: the west side will comprise a residential hall for 50 students, with the requisite offices, and the south side will be occupied by laboratories, and a department of animal pathology &c.: the main front, in Northumberland road, is 150 feet long, and has in the centre an embattled entrance tower 70 feet high, with a bold archway, above which is an oriel window two stories in height, carried on corbels: at the western end is a large bay window, opening from the council room, and the library above it, and at the north-east angle is a polygonal embattled turret corbelled out above the buttress, containing a staircase from the first or museum floor to the gallery: the main block includes, on the ground floor, a porter’s office, registrar’s and professors’ rooms, council room, lecture room, smaller lecture theatre, entrance hall, corridors and the principal staircase: the whole of the upper story of the front is devoted to the museum, 60 feet by 35 feet, and occupying the eastern half, and the examination hall and library, 80 feet by 35 feet, extending over the western portion: the hall has a panelled ceiling and a rich frieze and cornice; the walls are panelled to a height of 7 feet with an oak dado, and have recesses along one side for bookcases: the museum is furnished with a wide gallery: the upper story of the tower contains a large room, devoted to the use of the curator: the east wing includes, on the ground floor, the anatomy theatre, fitted with tiers of seats arranged in a semicircular form for 150 students; close by is the professor’s room, and immediately beyond are the students’ lavatory and locker room, and the dissecting room, 70 feet by 30 feet; and at the north end, adjoining the theatre, is an open yard: the basement under this wing contains two physiological and pathological laboratories, one 41 feet 6 inches by 30 feet, the other 30 feet by 27 feet 6 inches; a professor’s room, heating vault, store rooms, cellars &c.: the foundation stone was laid Nov. 3rd, 1887, by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland K.G. and the building completed in 1889, at a cost of £30,000: there is a large staff of lecturers in the various departments: full students of the college are eligible for the University Medical Scholarship; and attached to the college is a Dickinson Scholarship of £15 and a gold medal, and the Charlton, Gibb, Tulloch and Goyder Memorial Scholarships, consisting of the interest on sums of money varying from £325 to £500; prizes of books and honours certificates are also awarded, and certain appointments in the college and Newcastle Infirmary are open to the students, of whom, in 1888, there were about 200: the college is represented on the senate, and is governed by a Council of 9 members, including the following:-G. H. Philipson M.A, , M.D., D.C.L., F.R.C.P. president; Charles Gibson M.D. T. C. Nesham M.D. H. E. Armstrong D.Hy., M.R.C.S. S. McBean M.A., M.D. Robert Howden M.B., F.R.S.E. C. E. Williamson M.A., F.R.C.S. D. Drummond M.A., M.D. W. C. Arnison M.D. treasurer; F, Page M.D. registrar; James Murphy M.A., M.D. and Thomas Oliver M.D.

The Durham University College of Science was originally founded in 1871, and for 17 years its various departments were carried on in a number of different buildings, including the Mining Institute, the Coal Trades’ Offices, the Wood Memorial Hall and others belonging to the Literary and Philosophical Society and the College of Medicine, but eventually a site of 6 ¼ acres, on the border of the Leazes Common, and close to the Town Moor, was secured for the erection of permanent buildings, and complete designs for a quadrangular structure, surrounding an open courtyard, and estimated to cost, with equipment, about £100,000, were prepared by the late Mr. R. J. Johnson F.S.A, as architect to the College. The buildings are of brick and stone, in a species of Italianised Gothic, and the outline is agreeably and picturesquely varied by gables, projecting buttresses, tall oriels and numerous dormers, besides a fine tower, with angle turrets and vanes on the east side and a smaller one at the north-west angle; the foundation stone of the northern block, which was the first erected, was laid 15 June, 1887, by Sir W. G. Armstrong C.B. (now Lord Armstrong) and it was opened 5 Nov. 1888 by H.R.H, Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, at a cost of about £20,000; the foundation stone of the new blocks on the east and south sides of the quadrangle, the estimated cost of which is £30,000, was laid 5 Dec. 1892 by the Earl of Durham: the Chemistry and Physical department now occupies the whole of the north block and part of the eastern block, the rest of which is devoted to Engineering and Metallurgy, and in the upper floor to the Art School; in the southern block the Engineering department is continued, and has above it the larger portion of the Art School, continued round in the same way: the north block has, at its western extremity, an octagonal tower with domical roof, at present forming the principal entrance, and containing a circular staircase, 24 feet in diameter; this tower communicates immediately with the principal corridor, 9 feet in width, which extends along the whole length of this block, and which, on the erection of the western block, will be continuous round three sides of the quadrangle on the ground floor, and repeated in the basement for the conveyance of a ventilating shaft, steam and other pipes and electric mains: adjoining this tower on the ground floor is the Herschel physical laboratory, next it the electric testing room, then a preparation room, and beyond this, in the centre of the block, the physical lecture theatre rising to the full height of the floor above, and arranged for 200 students, but capable of holding 300 persons at a popular lecture, or any ordinary meeting; the remainder of the space is occupied by the professor’s room, private and special laboratories, and a room for gas analysis; adjoining and forming the north end of the ground floor of the new eastern block is a large chemical class room; above this, and occupying a large part of the second floor of the north block, is the Johnston chemical laboratory, which has a floor area of about 4,100 square feet, and is available for about 100 students at one time; the room is well lighted and has an open timbered roof rising to a height of about 30 feet from the floor; annexed at the west end of the laboratory are balance and combustion rooms and stores: the ground floor of the new eastern block contains, next the chemical class room already mentioned, a preparation room, and adjoining it the chemical lecture theatre, which is very similar to the physical lecture theatre described above, and over which are five rooms for private chemical research: beyond the lecture theatre is the great gateway tower, affording access to the quadrangle and having four octangular turrets, each rising about 96 feet from the ground; one of these serves as a chimney shaft for the boilers and metallurgical furnaces, another as a ventilation shaft, a third as an experimental tower for testing pressure gauges against a column of mercury and for other experimental work, and the fourth affords space for a hoist: over the gateway is a class room, two private rooms for professors, a room for the art masters and a professors’ common room: to the right of the gateway on entering the angle of the courtyard is the boiler room with accommodation for three boilers, feed pumps, measuring tanks etc.: adjoining the gateway on the other side is the metallurgical laboratory, with wind furnaces, muffle furnaces, and assay furnaces, and fitted with chemical benches for 24 students: next at the south end of the eastern block, is the engine room, where are the principal electric light engines, storage cells etc.; adjoining it and forming the ground floor of the southern block is the George Stephenson engineering laboratory, the principal portion of which is 123 feet long and 35 feet wide, but which is supplemented by an annexe, 9 feet wide throughout the greater part of its length: above this laboratory is the engineering drawing office and mechanical museum, a room 123 feet in length and 35 feet wide, well-lighted on both sides: next to the drawing office, in the south corner, is the engineering lecture room, by which, and over the metallurgical laboratory, is a lecture room for about 80 students: the whole of the second floor of the southern block is devoted to Fine Art, and is provided with a north light throughout the whole length of the roof, as well as with windows on each side, which can be darkened when required: the department comprises a master’s room, lecture room, life class room, and a room 123 feet in length, which can be divided by curtains as required: the Art department comprises a floor area of about 7,000 square feet, and in addition to this the engineers’ drawing offices are available for special classes if necessary: the whole of the new buildings are heated with low-pressure steam by means of Wenham and Waters’ air-tube radiators, which provide for the admission of warm air to be exhausted by a Blackman propeller. The Central Gateway Tower is known as the Royal Jubilee Exhibition Tower, the cost of its erection having been defrayed out of the surplus of the Jubilee Exhibition, held in Newcastle in 1887, the whole of which was handed over to the college by the Executive Council of that Exhibition for this purpose. In consequence of the death of the original architect, Mr. R. J. Johnson, before the completion of the plans for the new buildings, Mr. F. W, Rich, architect, of Newcastle, was appointed in his place, and the work has been carried out under his sole direction.

The college is an incorporated society, registered under the Companies Acts as a company limited by guarantee: its members are called governors and consist of persons who subscribe annually not less than £2 to the funds of the college, or have contributed a donation of not less than £25, of representatives of persons who bequeath not less than £100, of nominees of public companies and corporations who subscribe not less than £10 yearly, or have made a donation of not less than £250, and of representatives of firms subscribing £10 yearly, or contributing a donation of not less than £100 to the college funds: the governors also comprise the peers of the realm connected with the counties of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland and Westmorland, the Members of Parliament for the divisions and boroughs of the said counties and a number of representatives of learned societies and other public bodies. The executive of the college is vested in a council, consisting of the Warden of the University of Durham, who is president of the college, and twenty-six other members, of whom two at least must be members of the Senate of the University of Durham, and two others members of the Chapter or of Convocation, elected out of and by the governors; of the others, ten are elected out of and by the governors, and the remainder, including four nominated by the Corporation of Newcastle-on-Tyne, by the other members of the Council: any County Council or local authority contributing to the funds of the college is entitled to representation on the council in proportion to the amount of its contribution: the college represents the faculties of science and engineering in the University of Durham, and thus constitutes an important portion of the University of the North of England: the degrees of the University in science and its diplomas in engineering are open to the regular students of the college and to them alone, and certain of the professors hold their appointments from the University; but while in its relation to the University of Durham the college represents certain faculties only, it does not restrict its work to science and engineering: in its literary department, provision has been made for the teaching of English, Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian and Spanish; the college thus fulfils all the functions of a University college in the North of England, affording University training both in arts and science: the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education have approved of the college as a day training college, and arrangements have been made with the School Board of Newcastle to permit the use of their schools for practice in teaching. The Newcastle Society for the Promotion of the Fine Arts has also been incorporated with the college, and provision is made in the new buildings for the accommodation of its classes. Classes in connection with the North of England Pharmaceutical Association and technical classes in carriage building and plumbing are held in the college, under the management of committees consisting wholly or chiefly of members of the respective trades, and facilities will be offered to other trades to hold similar classes: instruction in agriculture, including chemistry and botany, veterinary anatomy and pathology, mechanics and surveying is provided for students attending the college regularly; special classes in the same subjects are held on Saturdays and in the summer vacation for schoolmasters: complete courses of instruction are provided in the departments of engineering and of technical chemistry for all classes of engineers, combined with opportunities for carrying on experimental work: the titles and degrees of the University of Durham in science and engineering are also open to evening students of the college who pass the matriculation examination, attend regularly for not less than ten hours per week (in the evenings or on Saturdays) and pass the same examinations as the day students: all the classes and laboratories of the college are open to women; and opening to the main corridor, opposite the Herschel laboratory, is a room measuring 32 feet by 29 feet, forming a one storey building and lighted chiefly by a skylight, which serves as a common room for lady students, where those from a distance can spend their time between lectures. There is a large and efficient staff of lecturers and demonstrators, and attached to the college are three open exhibitions of the value of £25, £15 and £10 respectively, awarded at the entrance matriculation examination, combined with additional subjects; the Junior Pemberton scholarship of £30 or under, tenable for one year, is awarded on the result of the first examination for the Associateship in Physical Science, and the Senior Pemberton scholarship of £40, tenable for two years, is awarded on the final examination for the same; the Thomas Young Hall scholarship of £20 with remission of fees and tenable for three years, is awarded on the same conditions as the Junior Pemberton scholarship, but cannot be held conjointly with any other; the Nathaniel Clark scholarship of £15 for one year is also awarded in connection with the first examination for the Associateship in Science but with special reference to chemistry and geology; the Charles Mather scholarship of £40 for two years is under the same conditions as the Senior Pemberton scholarship; the Alder scholarship of £13 10s. for one year is for Natural History; the Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering scholarship of £30 for two years is for apprentices or workmen in one of the shipbuilding or engineering establishments in the district of the Tyne, Wear or Tees; the Freire-Marreco bronze medal and prize of books, value £5, are awarded for proficiency in chemistry. In 1893 there were 121 matriculated students, 34 being ladies; in the same year, in addition to the matriculated students, 482 students attended the day and 1,478 the evening classes in connection with the college. The College Societies include a Union Society, an Athletic Union and a Musical Society. The endowment is provided in part by the University of Durham and otherwise by subscriptions raised in the North of England.

Public Buildings, Institutions etc.-The Moot Hall, in Castle square, standing on a lofty eminence 90 feet above the level of the river Tyne, and erected in 1810, is an edifice of stone with two porticos, supported by pillars of the Doric order, 28 feet in height: the basement of the building serves as a prison, in which county prisoners are temporarily incarcerated previous to their removal to the police station; the hall and the courtyard surrounding it, although standing within the city and county of Newcastle, are, by virtue of an Act of Parliament passed for that purpose, considered to be in Northumberland: the assizes and sessions are held and most of the county business is transacted here.

The Town Hall buildings, occupying a fine site in the Cloth and Groat markets, and St. Nicholas square and Bigg market, form an extensive and imposing range of buildings, constructed of freestone and erected at a cost of upwards of £50,000. In the centre is the Corn market or Exchange, above which is a large hall, calculated to seat 3,000 persons, with an orchestra capable of seating 300: the organ cost £2,400: the other apartments in this story are the council chamber, committee rooms and offices of the Town Clerk, City Treasurer, Surveyor, Engineer and other officials.

The Corporation insignia include a great mace, five sergeants’ maces, two swords, a mayor’s chain, and a cap of maintenance: the great mace is of silver gilt, 4 feet 11 inches in length, and was made for the Corporation in 1687 by Francis Garthorne, a silversmith of London, whose initials, several times repeated, are stamped upon it; the shaft, divided by knops, is engraved with a spiral pattern of roses and thistles, and on the foot knop is an inscription, with the arms of the borough and those of Thomas Cole, then mayor: the surface of the head is divided by demi-figures and scrolled foliage into compartments, filled with the national emblems, crowned, and on either side of each the initials “J.R.;" on the flat top are engraved the royal arms of James I. and from the cresting springs an open arched crown, surmounted by an orb and cross the five sergeants’ maces differ slightly in length, but are all of the same pattern, closely following the design of the great mace, and they appear to be of the same date; the foot knops bear the names or initials of some of those who have carried them: the older of the two swords, probably dating from the close of the 17th century, is 2 feet 2 ½ inches in length and has a very beautifully chased hilt; the silver gilt mountings of the scabbard display the royal arms, and those of the borough; the latter sword, made by James Bland, of London, about 1791, measures 4 feet 8 inches, and the borough arms appear on the hilt; the scabbard has silver gilt mountings, and one of these bears the name of the maker: by letters patent of Richard II. dated 25th January, 1491, the mayors of Newcastle have the privilege of having a sword carried before them. The Corporation also possesses some valuable plate, including a silver dish and ewer presented 8th June, 1681, by Sir Gilbert Gerrard bart. and his two sons; on both are inscriptions, and the dish bears the arms of the borough, and those of the donor and of Sir Nathaniel Johnson, then mayor; there is also a very fine silver gilt loving cup, said to be the work of the famous silversmith, Paul La Merie, and dating from 1731-2; the base is formed of elaborate scroll work with figures, and the lower half of the cup is covered with embossing; the handles are formed of scrolls, with finely modelled nude female figures, holding out escallop shells: on the summit is an infant Bacchus, and on the sides the borough arms; further belonging to the Corporation is a large silver salver and epergne purchased in 1759, with a sum of 100 guineas, presented to the Corporation by George Bowes esq. who won it, as “a Royal purse,” in a race at Newcastle, 25th June, 1753, with a bay horse called “Cato; " besides the inscription, the salver bears the royal arms, and those of the donor and the borough; there are also several municipal snuff boxes.

The News Room and Art Gallery in Grainger street, Grey street and Market street, is an edifice of triangular form, with three fronts, which are of uniform design in the Classic style, relieved by columns of the Corinthian order, and was erected under the direction of Mr. Richard Grainger in 1838: the three angles are finished with domes supported on Corinthian columns: the building was originally intended for a corn exchange, but has for many years been used as a News room and Fine Arts gallery: in 1892 the interior was entirely remodelled, and now comprises a splendid suite of picture galleries and a bijou Concert hall, in which exhibitions, lectures, concerts and dramatic entertainments are frequently held: there is also a fine suite of news and club rooms, reserved for subscribers, of whom there are now (1894) over 2,200: the clubs connected with this institution are numerous, and the Newcastle and Northern Counties Photographic Association, and the Northern Counties Architectural Association hold their meetings here: Messrs. Barkas & Son are the lessees.

The Exchange and Guildhall, in Sandhill, is a spacious building of stone, erected in 1658 by Robert Trollop: it has since then undergone many alterations and improvements: the upper part contains the Guildhall, a magnificent chamber, 92 feet long and 30 feet wide, elaborately ornamented with a beautiful ceiling of oak: the Court-room of the Merchant Adventurers is also very handsome, and contains some tine oak carvings, as well as decorations taken from Scripture history: on the ground floor is the exchange and also the News rooms, both spacious apartments: the quarter sessions are held in the Guildhall.

The Exchange buildings, on the Quay side, on a site rendered vacant by the explosion which took place in a large warehouse in Gateshead in 1854, form an imposing structure, principally used as merchants’ offices.

The General Post Office, facing the tower of the Cathedral, and opened April 27th, 1876, is a noble structure of freestone, in the Classic style, built from the designs of J. Williams esq.: the lower part of the building is of the Doric order, the upper portion mostly Corinthian: in 1892 the building was enlarged and extended to three times its original size.

The Wood Memorial Hall, in Westgate road, erected in 1870 by public subscription as a memorial to Nicholas Wood, first president of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, is a building in the French Gothic style, used by the members of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers for their meetings. The Memorial Hall itself, entered from the first landing, is lined with polished Caen stone, relieved by bands of rad sandstone over the side arcades, and has a ceiling of stained wood, supported by semi-circular moulded ribs, rising from marble shafts: the windows are stained, and bear the arms and monogram of the Wood family, and in the hall is an inscription to Mr. Wood, who died 19th December, 1865. There is an excellent library of scientific books, comprising the transactions of nearly all the British, Colonial and foreign learned societies, and immediately opposite the entrance to the room is a life-sized statue of Mr, Wood in a sitting posture, in white marble, the work of Mr. Wyon.

The Literary and Philosophical Society’s Hall in Westgate road is a modern structure in the Classic style, and has a large library well adapted for the purpose of study, and containing many thousand volumes: arranged on pedestals around the room are marble busts of distinguished individuals who have been members of this society. On the evening of 7 Feb. 1893, a disastrous fire broke out in the building, and besides doing much other damage, destroyed or injured books valued at £7,000; the main walls are now (1894) in course of restoration.

The Assembly Rooms, in Westgate road, were originally built by subscription in 1774: the present building, reopened June 24th, 1876, has a front elevation of stone, with wings, adorned with columns of the Ionic order, and a projecting centre relieved by a colonnade of six pillars; on the ground-floor is a spacious entrance hall, dining-room, anterooms, kitchens etc.; on the first floor is the large assembly or ball room, 94 feet by 36 feet and 32 feet high; adjoining are smaller assembly rooms, the Falstaff and other rooms; the assembly rooms are mostly used for balls, dinners etc.

The Trinity House, in the Broad Chare, consists of a spacious hall and offices, the entrance being used as a kind of museum; here is a model of a full-sized line-of-battle ships made by the French prisoners at Portsmouth, and a model in ivory of Nelson’s ship “Victory.” The chapel, which dates from the year 1491, has the appearance of the under part of a ship’s deck; the pulpit, master’s seat, pews and all the fittings are good specimens of Elizabethan work; the house maintains 24 pensioners, 12 males and 12 females. The Rev. W. L. Cunningham, vicar of St. Augustine’s, Tynemouth, is the chaplain.

The Branch Bank of England, on the west side of Grey street, is an edifice of stone in the classic style: the lower storey is of rustic masonry, supporting nine Corinthian columns and two pilasters, over which is an entablature finished with a double row of balustrades.

There are also the banking establishments of Messrs. Lambton and Co. in Grey street; Messrs. Woods and Co. and the National Provincial Bank of England, both in Mosley street; Messrs. Hodgkin, Barnett, Pease, Spence and Co. in Collingwood street; the North Eastern Banking Company, Grey street; and the Savings Bank in Westgate road.

The Newcastle Chamber of Agriculture and Farmers’ Club, established in 1843, occupies rooms in the Town Hall buildings, off the Corn Exchange. The club rooms are open on Tuesdays and Saturdays and fair days: monthly meetings are held on the 3rd Saturday of each month from October to May, for the reading of papers and discussion: the number of members is now (1894) about 400: E. J. J. Browell esq. J.P. president; W. A. Temperly, jun. esq. 2 St. Nicholas’ buildings, Newcastle, secretary.

The Custom House, on Quay side, is a plain building of stone conveniently situated for the transaction of shipping business; the receipt of customs for the year ending Dec. 1892, was £371,335.

The Union Club was established in Aug. 1862, and removed to the present site May 21, 1878: the club building, in Westgate street, erected at a cost of about £40,000, is an edifice in the Renaissance style: the principal hall is adorned with a window containing large figures of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare and Milton, with characters from some of their principal works underneath, and above, figures representing Poetry and Music; in the head of the window are the arms of the club.

The Liberal Club, founded in 1879, occupies premises in Pilgrim street, formerly the “Queen’s Head" hotel, to which the club removed in 1884 from Grey square; but its original home was in Charlotte square: there are now (1894), 830 members.

The Central Police Courts, in Pilgrim street, were opened on the 9th of July, 1874.

Westgate Road Police and City Fire Brigade Station, situated in Westgate road and Thornton street, and erected in 1885, at a cost of £ 10,000, was opened by the mayor (W. H. Stephenson esq.) on September 1st in that year: it is a building of red brick with stone dressings, in the Domestic-Gothic style, with a watch tower 100 feet in height: the spacious entrance in Westgate road opens into a lobby, from which access is gained to the charge and inquiry rooms, the parade room and the medical officer’s room and other apartments: there are also offices for the police superintendent: on the ground floor are six cells: in the rear of the inquiry and other offices is a yard 96 feet long with an average width of 25 feet, on either side of which are barracks of the fire brigade and police: the fire-engine house is also here, and contains two steam fire-engines, one manual, one hose tender and other minor appliances: there are three fire-escapes, several hand-carts and a mile and half of hose: on the first floor are the apartments of the superintendent of the fire brigade, and over these are rooms for the superintendent of the division: the engineer and assistant-engineer, and four firemen, all married, also live on the premises: on the second floor and in the attics and elsewhere are bedrooms for 30 constables, and 10 auxiliaries can also be furnished with rooms: on the first floor, facing the street, is a library and sitting-room and a billiard room. The premises also include stabling for 7 horses.

The Museum of the Natural History Society, situated in North road, and built in 1883 and 1884, at a cost of £42,000, defrayed chiefly by the subscriptions of the members, is a building of stone in the Classic style, from gratuitous designs by Mr. John Wardle, architect, and was opened by H.R.H, the Prince of Wales on Wed. August 20th, 1884. The project of erecting this building for the large collections of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-on-Tyne originated with Mr. John Hancock, and was carried out under his direction: the entrance is reached by a flight of stone steps 60 feet in length, opening into a corridor, from each end of which admission is gained to large halls and by staircases to the galleries: in the first room, 100 feet long by 40 feet wide, is placed the collection of fishes, reptiles, shells, insects, sponges etc.; and in the gallery is the collection of original drawings of birds by Thomas Bewick, presented by the executors of the late Miss Bewick: the central hall, 100 feet long by 50 wide, is devoted to displaying Mr. John Hancock’s splendid gift of British birds, said to be the finest collection of the kind in the kingdom: the third hall, 100 feet long by 40 wide, contains the geological specimens, including a large collection of the fauna of the coal measures made by the late Mr, Thomas Atthey, and presented to the museum by Lady Armstrong, and also the specimens of the flora of the coal measures, from which the illustrations of the fossil flora of Lindley and Hutton were drawn. The museum is open daily from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. in summer and from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. in winter; Richard Howse, curator; Joseph Wright, keeper.

The Public Library and News Room, New Bridge street, erected in 1880-4, and opened by H.R.H, the Prince of Wales, 20 Aug. 1884, was built at a cost, including site, of more than £24,000, from designs by Mr. A. M. Fowler, architect, and is a building three storeys in height, in the Classic style; the facade is 167 feet in length, arranged in bold relief in bays 30 feet wide at each end: the principal entrance, in the centre of the facade, is approached by seven steps through a pedimented portico with Doric columns, supporting an entablature surrounded by a balustrade, which is continued along the whole length of the building: on the ground floor is a spacious lending library with two reading rooms; the first-floor rooms, together 132 by 41 feet, are appropriated to the reference library, and four root is are set apart as store rooms for books. The number of volumes contained in the several sections of the library now exceeds 75,000.

The Thomlinson Library, now incorporated with the Public Library, owes its origin to a collection of books bequeathed to the inhabitants of Newcastle by the Rev. Robert Thomlinson D.D. afternoon lecturer to the church of St. Nicholas, in 1741. Sir Walter Blackett bart. erected a library for the storage of the books over the vestry of St. Nicholas’ church about 1735-6. An annual income of £25 for the services of a librarian, and £5 for the purchase of new books, were also provided by Sir Walter Blackett and Dr. Thomlinson respectively, by means of rent-charges. In 1829 the library contained upwards of eight thousand volumes, and in 1884 the trustees of the library united with the committee of the Public Library in making application to the Charity Commissioners, asking that a scheme should be prepared for the conveyance of the books to the Public Library. The deed of transfer is dated April 1st, 1884, and on January 16th, 1885, the transfer of the collection to the Public Library was completed; the City Council voting the sum of £865 for new fittings, binding &c. and a further sum of £180 has been expended by the Libraries Committee on re-binding and cataloguing; librarian, Mr. W. J. Haggerston.

The Diocesan Church Institute, in Hood street and High Friar lane, opened in 1893, by the Bishop of Newcastle, occupies the building hitherto known as the Central Hall, which has been remodelled and enlarged so as to suit its present purpose; the interior now comprises reading and committee rooms, a large hall for lectures, concerts and meetings, rooms for ladies, and in the basement a gymnasium.

The Young Men’s Christian Association, founded in 1858, occupies what was formerly St. James’ Congregational church, situated at the junction of Blackett and Grainger streets, and purchased from that denomination for the sum of £6,650, in the year 1884; the total cost, including alterations and furnishing &c. exceeded £10,000; the basement comprises an elegantly furnished restaurant and cafe, and a gymnasium with dressing and bath rooms; and on the first floor are a spacious reading-room, handsomely furnished, and supplied with newspapers, periodicals etc., library, writing and chess tables, conversation room, available for class room, and reference library, a large class room, which, by folding doors, may be divided into two rooms, lavatories &c.: in the vestibule there is an office for the secretary: the whole of the upper floor forms a hall, tastefully decorated and seated for about 450 persons; the premises are open daily from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.; Thomas Hodgkin J.P., D.C.L. honorary treasurer; Henry Armstrong, secretary.

There are several subscription and circulating libraries, as well as those belonging to the various literary institutions. There are also subscription news-rooms, well supplied with the local, metropolitan and other journals and periodicals.

There are six weekly newspapers published in Newcastle: the “Newcastle Courant,” published on Friday; the “Newcastle Weekly Chronicle,” Saturday; the “Irish Tribune,” Saturday; the “Northern Weekly Leader,” Saturday; the “Sunday Chronicle,” and “Catholic Educator.” The daily newspapers are the “Newcastle Daily Chronicle,” the “Newcastle Daily Journal;” the “Newcastle Daily Leader;” and two evening papers, the “Evening Chronicle” and the “Evening News.” There is also a “Monthly Chronicle” issued from the “Weekly Chronicle” office.

The Corporation of Newcastle have laid tramways through the principal streets to Scotswood toll bar, Jesmond, Byker, Gosforth, Elswick road and Arthur’s Hill, at a total cost of upwards of £30,000; the lessees, The Newcastle Tramway Company Limited, pay a rent at the rate of 7 ¼ per cent, and on the portions more recently constructed 6 per cent, on the outlay.

The Corporation Public Baths and Washhouses are in the City road and Gallowgate, and the Northumberland Baths in the Northumberland road.

The Elswick Baths and Washhouses in Scotswood road contain two swimming and several private baths: they were erected by the corporation and opened by the Mayor (B. C. Browne esq.), June 12,1886. There are also baths at Shipley street, Byker and Church street.

The Turkish Baths in Pilgrim street were erected in 1874.

Her Majesty’s Prison for Newcastle and Northumberland, situated in Carliol square, is a building of stone, with a central tower and massive gateway, and the whole is surrounded by a stone wall 25 feet high.

The Butchers’ Market, opened in 1835, has entrances in Grainger street, Clayton street east, Nun street, and Nelson street, and is opened daily. The cattle market is held on Tuesday, near the railway station; the hay and straw market is held the same day at Barras bridge; the corn market is held every Tuesday and Saturday; the cow market is held every Saturday. The fish market is in The Close.

Fairs for cattle and horses are held on the last Wednesday in March and November, and the general fairs the second Wednesday in August and last Wednesday in October; hiring for hinds takes place on the first Wednesday in April, for single servants on the first Monday in May, and on the first Monday in November.

The Newcastle races are held at High Gosforth Park, about 6 miles from Newcastle.

The Theatre Royal, in Grey street, is an elegant building of stone in the Classic style, and has a lofty portico adorned with six Corinthian columns on pedestals, surmounted by an enriched pediment bearing the Royal arms; the design is taken from the Pantheon at Rome: the theatre will seat 2,500 persons, and has two tiers of boxes together with a spacious amphitheatre and gallery above; the stage is 56 feet by 46 feet. The Tyne theatre, also a spacious edifice, is situated in Westgate road.

The People’s Palace, a music hall, in Percy street, is a large building, holding upwards of 3,000 persons.

The Empire Variety Theatre, opened in 1891, and fitted throughout with the electric light, will hold 2,000 persons; Messrs. Moss & Thornton are the lessees.

The Olympia Hall, in Northumberland road, opened 2nd December, 1893, is a structure of corrugated iron, lined with wood, with an iron framed ceiling, and a highly ornate facade in the Italian style, executed in plaster work; the iron work was brought from Sunderland, where it formed part of a similar hall, but the present building is 30 feet longer, and has been designed and its erection superintended by Messrs. Oliver & Leeson, of Newcastle, and Mr. T. R. Milburn, of Sunderland, as joint architects; the interior is 134 feet long by 79 wide, and is surrounded by a gallery on three sides, and at one end is a stage, attached to which are dressing and other rooms; at the principal entrance is a large vestibule, with cloak rooms and lavatories on either side and wide staircases leading to the galleries, and on each side of the hall are two large exit doors opening into the roadway; the hall is calculated to seat 3,400 persons, and to hold, in case of necessity, quite 5,000; it is the property of a company.

Newcastle is within the North Eastern military district, the head quarters of which are at York; and here is the depot of Regimental District No. 5, the Northumberland Fusiliers, 1st and 2nd Battalions (5th Foot), with a Militia Battalion attached, forming its 3rd Battalion, whose head quarters are at Alnwick; the 3rd Volunteer Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers are brigaded with this regiment.

Newcastle is also the depot of Regimental District No. 68, the Durham Light Infantry, which is comprised of the 1st Battalion (65th Foot), 2nd Battalion (106th Foot), and the 1st and 2nd Durham Militia, which form respectively its 3rd and 4th Battalions. The head quarters of the 3rd are at Barnard Castle and of the 4th in this city. Here also is an artillery depot.

The Barracks in Barrack road, erected in 1806, are fitted for infantry and cavalry; new barracks were added in 1883.

The Northumberland Hussars Yeomanry Cavalry, which forms part of the 12th Yeomanry Brigade, have head quarters and drill ground in Northumberland road.

Cambridge Hall, the head quarters of the 1st Newcastle Volunteer Artillery, Western Division, Royal Artillery, in Northumberland road, erected in 1886-87, from designs by Mr. W. L. Newcombe F.R.I.B.A. of Newcastle, comprises on the ground floor officers’ quarters, facing Northumberland road, an orderly room, with private office and an armoury, with rifle-cleaning rooms, sergeants’ room &C. A staircase from the officers’ hall leads to the upper floor, on which is a large mess room, cloak room, kitchen and caretaker’s premises. The main drill hall, 100 feet long by 60 feet wide, situated at the back of the officers’ quarters, is entered by a wide archway, and has stabling and gun stores attached.

The Newcastle Engineer Volunteers have their head quarters in Sandyford road.

St. George’s Hall, in St. Mary’s place, off Northumberland road, and built in 1883, for the head quarters of the 3rd Volunteer Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers, is a building of red brick with stone dressings, in the Norman style. The large Drill Hall is 195 feet long and 95 feet wide, and will hold 10,000 people standing, or 2,000 seated; attached to the hall are the sergeant-major’s residence, officers’ mess room and lavatory; dinners can easily be provided for 2,000 persons; at the west end of the building is a gallery seating 100 persons. There are store rooms and armoury, the latter containing 740 rifles. The hall is also let for balls, banquets and large meetings, for which it is well adapted. Two Lawn Tennis clubs and a Gymnastic club meet here.



The Royal Infirmary, a noble building in the Forth banks, was established in the year 1751 for the sick and lame poor of the counties of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland and Durham, and is supported by voluntary contributions: the Ravensworth ward, containing 50 beds, was added in 1886 at a cost of £2,000; the total number of patients treated during the year 1892 was, in-patients, 3,293; out-patients, 4,425. The number of patients treated by the hon. dental surgeon has been 858.

The Dispensary, in Nelson street, was erected in 1838, but its foundation dates from 1777. It is supported by endowments and voluntary contributions. The total number of patients treated during the year 1893 was 27,201, of whom 9,031 were letter patients, and 18,470 casuals.

The Northumberland, Durham & Newcastle Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye, in St. Mary’s place, erected in 1884-5 a cost of £6,000, from designs by Messrs. Newcombe and Knowles, architects, of Newcastle, is a structure of red brick and Dennick stone in the Queen Anne style, containing on the ground floor the administrative department, comprising board room, retiring room, and the usual offices; and on the west, the out-patients' department, consisting of general waiting room, consulting and operating rooms, dispensary and the necessary stores, offices &c. The outpatients’ entrance and exit are apart from the main entrance On the upper floor are the wards for in-patients, with nurses’ rooms. An operating room and day room are in connection; from the latter, access is given to an ambulatory for exercise, overlooking the gardens of Lovaine place. Nurses’ rooms occupy the remainder of the buildings. In 1891 the number of in-patients was 382 and of out-patients 7,500; it contains 12 beds. The Infirmary was founded in 1822.

The Northern Counties Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest, 50 Blackett street, was established in 1878, and contains 5 beds. In 1892 the number of inpatients was 23 and of out-patients 1,293.

The Newcastle Hospital for Diseases of the Throat and Ear, at 1 Clayton street and 20 Brighton grove, established in 1878, is open for out-patients, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 3 p.m.; and Friday 6 to 7 p.m. No letter required. In 1893 the number of patients treated was 2,320.

The Throat and Ear Infirmary, 5 Saville row, was established in 1877. The number of patients treated in 1893 was 303.

The Lyingin Hospital, 54 New Bridge street, founded in 1760, now occupies a neat building of stone, erected in 1826, and containing 12 beds.

The Fleming Memorial Hospital, in the North road, adjoining the Northern Counties Orphan Institute, was erected in 1887 at a cost of £23,000, by John Fleming, solicitor, of Newcastle, as a memorial to his wife. It is a structure of red Normanby brick, with stone dressings, in the Tudor Gothic style, from designs by Messrs. Quilter and Wheelhouse, architects, of London, consisting of a centre block and two wings, having a frontage of 216 feet. There is a smaller hospital for infectious cases. The whole building covers an area of 4,869 feet and the grounds are 3 ½ acres in extent. On the ground floor is a spacious dining hall, 38 feet by 20, and 18 feet high, and a board room. On the first floor, approached by a marble staircase, are two large wards, 60 feet by 20 feet, and 13 feet high, each containing 20 beds, and five small wards with 4 beds each. There are operating rooms for general and ophthalmic eases, children’s day room, nurses’ and matron’s rooms and laundry. In 1892 the number of in-patients was 584 and out-patients 4,343.

The Children’s Hospital, Hanover square, for out-door patients only, is supported by voluntary contributions; the hours of attendance are from 3 to 5 p.m. daily.

The River Tyne Port Sanitary Authority’s Floating Hospital, Jarrow Slake, designed by Mr. W. G. Laws, city engineer, was launched on August 2nd, 1886. It is built on ten cylindrical iron pontoons, each 70 feet long and 6 feet in diameter, having a floating power equal to 535 tons, which Support a strong framework of iron, consisting of longitudinal roller girders, braced together, and carrying a deck or platform of creosote timber, 140 feet long by 80 wide, surrounded by a neat handrail with a gangway, affording access from the river; upon this platform the hospital and its adjuncts are erected. The hospital consists of three main buildings, each 65 feet long, 23 ½ feet wide and about 20 feet high; six smaller structures and a mortuary. Each main building contains two wards, having respectively six and four beds; they are spacious, light and airy apartments, with large windows and special means of ventilation. The interior is lined with polished pitch pine. Between the wards, in each case, is an apartment for the nurse, fitted with glazed doors, and commanding a full view of each ward. There are also entrances from the deck to the different wards, and the buildings are so arranged that they can be completely isolated. Medical superintendent, Henry E. Armstrong M.R.C.S. Newcastle-on-Tyne; assistant supt. Jos. F. Armstrong M.D. South Shields.

The Northern Counties Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, on the North road, near Brandling village, erected in 1861, at a cost of £5,000, is a building of yellow sandstone, varied by bands of whin and grey Aberdeen granite and Cumberand red sandstone in the Gothic style; the facade is upwards of 140 feet in length, exclusive of a range of lower elevation adjoining, and has a tower of three storeys, terminated by a slated spire, the whole rising 100 feet from the ground: on the principal landing is a window, designed and painted by deaf and dumb artists for the exhibition of 1862, and presented by Mr. William Wailes, as a token of gratitude for the care and tuition his daughter had received in the institution: in 1893 the number of inmates was 128.

The Home for Incurables, at Spital Tongues, opened Aug. 3, 1893, is a structure of brick with stone dressings in a plain Italian style, from designs by Mr. Edward Shrewbrooks, architect, and in plan takes somewhat the shape of the letter E; it comprises a main block, with wings or pavilions at either end, and in the centre another projecting block containing a dining hall and kitchen; the ground falling slightly eastwards the east wing is raised upon a terrace 10 feet in height, inclosed by a balustraded wall, and thus forms an agreeable promenade. The principal entrance, in the centre of the main block, forms a porch, and has a moulded stone archway, surmounted by the city arms, and leads to an entrance hall communicating with the main corridor, which is 195 feet long and 9 feet in width; on this floor is the committee room and library, dispensary, medical and other officers’ rooms, men’s and women’s work and day rooms, and other apartments and offices; on the first floor is a similar corridor, containing wards or dormitories, matron’s and nurses’ rooms &c.; on the upper floor are bedrooms for servants; the dining hall is 36 by 24 feet and 13 feet in height, and it also serves for concerts and entertainments; the wings or pavilions each contain two wards, 38 by 24 feet, for 10 beds, the east wing being for women and the west wing for men; there is also a separate block for cases of cancer, 92 feet long and two storeys high, providing for 20 beds disposed in two wards, with other necessary rooms; in rear of the building is a spacious laundry, very completely arranged and fitted, and a mortuary.

The Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin, in Westmoreland road, is an ancient foundation, dating from the reign of Hen. II. and was established by the munificence of a member of the Aselack family of Killingworth, who gave the site and an endowment for the maintenance of two friars and a chaplain to attend to the poor: subsequently the inhabitants increased this endowment for the maintenance of six bede-folk within the hospital, and for the lodging and relief of wayfarers: after the dissolution of the hospital, its buildings, which then stood in Westgate street, were assigned to the Grammar School, until its removal to a new site in 1870: the present hospital is for a master, eight resident brethren and two non-resident, and possesses a considerable estate in Newcastle and the neighbourhood, producing a yearly income of about £2,200: connected with the hospital is a detached chapel, an edifice of stone, erected in 1858, and consisting of chancel and nave, and a tower with spire; it is open to the public and has 500 sittings. The mastership of the hospital is of the yearly value of £500, in the gift of the Corporation, and has been held since 1858 by the Rev. Robert Anchor Thompson M.A, of St. Catharine’s College, Cambridge. The brethren are appointed by the master; each resident receives £30 a year and has a separate house, and each non-resident has £37 10s. yearly.

The hospital funds contribute £800 yearly for the support of the Grammar School.

The hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, at Barras (Barrows) Bridge, is an ancient foundation dating from the reign of Henry I. and was originally a lazar house, or hospital for lepers; but ceasing to be needed for that purpose, it was dissolved as an independent institution and incorporated with the hospital of St. Thomas of Canterbury, the chapel of which stood at the north end of the old Tyne bridge, and continued to be used both for Sunday and week-day services until the early part of the present century, when it was taken down and the existing chapel of St. Thomas erected in 1830 near the hospital of St. Mary, with which it is connected; the chapel is an edifice of stone in the Early English style, consisting of quasi-chancel, nave and an open turret containing one bell: the hospital foundation now consists of a master and sixteen brethren, with a considerable estate at and near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, producing a yearly income of about £1,552. The brethren are appointed by the Corporation, and must be free burgesses of the town; each receives £25 a year and has a separate residence; the mastership is of the yearly value of £500, with house, in the gift of the Corporation, and held since 1894 by the Rev. Alexander James-Harrison B.D. Cannaur. The hospital funds also provide £100 a year for educational purposes; the grounds, which are tastefully laid out, are open to the public.

The Hospital of the Holy Jesus, a large edifice of brick, standing on the east side of the Manors, was erected in 1682 for the reception of seven men and 31 women, who receive £1 per month and also coals and clothing, together with the produce of some small charities bequeathed to the hospital. The income amounts to £800 yearly.

The Keelmen’s Hospital, occupying an elevated site on the north side of the City road, was founded by the keelmen in 1701, and is an edifice of brick, containing 52 rooms for the reception of disabled members of that body.

The Trinity Almshouses, incorporated in 1492, are connected with the Trinity house, Broad Chare.

The Philipson Memorial Orphanage for boys, North road, founded in memory of Mrs. Jane Philipson and formerly in Clayton street, was opened in 1876, and is a building of brick, with stone facings, and will bold 150 boys.

The Northern Counties Female Orphan Institution, on the North road, erected in memory of the late John Abbot esq. is an extensive building of redbrick, with stone facings, and will hold about 100 girls.

The Female Penitentiary, Wansbeck Home, in Elswick road, founded in 1831, is maintained by voluntary contributions and work done by the inmates.

The Catholic Convent of the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul is situated in the Manors, and has attached to it St. Andrew’s Catholic schools.

Public Parks. - Armstrong Park, situated to the north of the town, and now including Jesmond Dene, is a fine demesne of about 112 acres, and originated with the gift in 1881 by Lord Armstrong C.B, of grounds of 26 acres, including the present refreshment building, Bulmer wood, the plot of land on which stands the ruin called “King John’s Palace,” and an additional portion of Heaton Wood: other plots of land to the east and west were also presented, giving a total area of nearly 50 acres, and the Corporation then made additional entrances and laid out a carriage drive round the eastern boundary: in 1883, Lord Armstrong made known to the Corporation his intention of making over to them Jesmond Dene, which, from being a wild and almost waste ravine, he had converted into a shady park, traversed by a delightfully wooded and picturesque glen, abounding in fine walks, bridges, dingles, heavy-foliaged trees and masses of flowers, an old mill with its waterfall, a grotto, and sequestered nooks and retreats, constituting attractions which the public, previously admitted by payment, have always been highly prized: shortly afterwards, Lord Armstrong further gave a field of 14 acres, adjoining the Dene, to be used for popular gatherings and amusements: the whole covers an area of 62 ¼ acres, and contains a banqueting hall, furnished with an organ and hung with pictures: the original park is planted with trees and shrubs, and traversed by a carriage drive and pleasant walks, and includes recreation grounds, a temple and a large lake. Jesmond Dene was formally opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales on their visit, in August, 1884, and has been transferred to the Corporation on the conditions that they shall not alter the laying out of the grounds, so as to render them more artificial than at present, and that the Dene shall be under the entire control of the donor and Lady Armstrong, during their respective lifetimes. The park is open to the public daily, from sunrise to sunset.

The Leazes Park, in the northern part of the city, and opened in 1873, was formed from a portion of the Leazes and covers an area of 103 ¼ acres: in the park is a large lake, containing an islet, affording shelter to the water fowl: on the south side is a raised promenade with a large fountain. During the summer months the police band is in attendance; a portion of the park is set apart for croquet, and there are also extensive bowling greens and a lawn-tennis ground; the park has been laid out under the direction of the Town Council at a cost of about £3.000.

The Town Moor has an area of 987 acres.

Elswick Park, an inclosure of 14 acres, including the fine old mansion called Elswick Hall, lies between Elswick road and Westmoreland road; the park was purchased by the Corporation and opened in November, 1878; the old hall is utilized for the reception of the models presented to the town by the representatives of John Graham Lough and Matthew Noble, the distinguished sculptors, now deceased; an ornamental lake, croquet lawn, and lodges have been constructed, and new fencing and other ornamental works carried out.

Brandling Park, next to the North road, near the town moor, comprises 4 ½ acres, inclosed by a substantial railing, and planted with ornamental shrubs, flower beds, and has a croquet lawn, bowling green and ornamental water.

Portland (private) Park, opened in July, 1874, is in Jesmond road, and covers an area of four acres, with a bowling green and croquet and lawn-tennis grounds.

The Cruddas Recreation Ground, Scotswood road, presented to the city by William D. Cruddas esq. of Dene House, Scotswood, was opened by the mayor in the spring of 1893, and has an area of 4 acres.


The Ionic column at the top of Grey street, 132 feet in height, surmounted by a statue of Earl Grey, was erected in 1836 to commemorate the passing of the Reform Act: the top of the monument can be reached by a newel staircase in the interior.

The Stephenson Monument, standing near the Central Station, includes a bronze figure of George Stephenson, the famous engineer and originator of railways, placed on a pedestal, at the base of which are four figures intended to represent the craftsmen of this district: he was born in 1781, at Wylam, eight miles from Newcastle, and associated himself with Newcastle by establishing the first locomotive engine factory in the town; he died on August 12, 1848, and was buried in Trinity church, Chesterfield: the monument was erected by subscription from the design of J. G. Lough esq. and was inaugurated in 1862.


Among the many distinguished and eminent men who have been born or lived at Newcastle are Nicholas Durham, a great opponent of John Wycliffe; the Rev. William Elstob M.A. born here 1st. Jan. 1673, and Mary Elstob, his sister, born here 29th Sept. 1683, eminent Saxon scholars; Mark Akenside M.D. poet and physician, born here 1721; Rev. Henry Bourne, historian, born 1694; Sir Robert Chambers, chief justice of Bengal, born here 1737; Charles Hutton LL.D. the mathematician, born 14th August, 1737; the Lord Chancellor Eldon, born 4th June, 1751, and his brother Lord Stowell, born at Heworth, 17th October, 1745; Admiral Lord Collingwood, born 26th Sept. 1750; John Horsley, antiquary, born 1685; Rev. John Brand B.A. divine and antiquary, born 1743; and Thomas Miles Richardson, an artist of great merit, born 1784.

The distinguished wood engraver, Thomas Bewick, was born at Cherry Burn, near Ovingham, 12 miles west from Newcastle, on the 12th August, 1753: he was apprenticed to Mr. Ralph Beilby, an engraver, then of this town, on the 1st of October, 1767, with whom, soon after the expiration of his term, he entered into partnership: he died at the Windmill hills, Gateshead, November 8th, 1828, aged 75.


Monastic Houses and Hospitals.-These were anciently numerous in the mediaeval town, one of the earliest being the Benedictine nunnery of St. Bartholomew, founded early in the 12th century, near the present Nun street; on its suppression there were 8 nuns, and revenues valued at £36. The Dominicans, or Black Friars, whose house was adjacent to Low Friar street, were established here about 1251, by Peter Scott, then mayor of Newcastle, and Sir Nicholas Scott, his son, one of the bailiffs; on its suppression there were 12 friars: the chapel of this monastery, in which Edward Balliol did homage to Edward III. in 1333, is now the Smiths’ Hall: the Austin Friars owed their foundation in Newcastle, c. 1293, William, 2nd baron de Ros, of Hamlake and Werke; their house was situated on the south or left side of Manor Chare, and after the Dissolution, when there were 7 friars and 3 novices, the materials of the buildings were used by the Corporation in the erection of a workhouse and other local institutions: the Friars de Sacco, or de Penitentid, established themselves here at some date prior to 1268, and were granted a site called “Constable Culgarth:” there was also a house of Franciscans, or Grey Friars, founded in the reign of Henry III. by the Carliol family, and adjoining the present High Friar street; on its suppression in 1539, this community consisted of the prior, John Crayforth, 8 friars and 2 novices; the refectory remains: the Carmelites, or White Friars, were first settled at Wall Knoll by William de Acton, a burgess of Newcastle; but in 1307, May 26, Edward I. granted to them the site and buildings of the Friars de Sacco; the existing remains of these buildings consist of two walls at right angles to each other and forming in plan the letter T, the upright portion being 42 feet in length; in these remain an Early English segmental arched fireplace, fragments of windows, and a pointed doorway; four octagonal capitals and a corbel have been found on the site, which is distant 143 feet from the town wall, between Denton tower and the next to it; this house was suppressed in 1539: a community of Mathurines, or Trinitarian Friars, was established here by W. Acton in 1360.

Of the ancient hospitals, two, those of St. Mary the Virgin and St. Mary Magdalen, still exist and are noticed elsewhere: the Hospital of St. Thomas stood at the end of the Tyne bridge, and its chapel, a plain building, served as a chapel of ease to St. Nicholas’ church until its removal at the beginning of the present century, when the present chapel of St. Thomas, at Barras bridge, was erected in its place: the hospital of St. Catherine was founded by Roger Thornton, in the reign of Henry IV.; and there was also a hospital of St. Mary the Virgin at Jesmond (Jesus’ Mount), north of the town, one of the windows of which may be seen built into the gable of a house; the ruins of its chapel, once the resort of pilgrims from all parts of the country, stand on the edge of Jesmond Dene, on the west bank of the Ouseburn, and behind the chapel is St. Mary’s well, over which rises a moss-grown arch, bearing the word “gratia;” the chapel with other property in Jesmond, was granted in 1548-9 to the Corporation, and by them regranted to Sir Robert Brandling.


The New Castle, from which the town derives its name, appears to have been so called to distinguish it from other fortresses, such as Bamburgh and Tynemouth, already existing within the Earldom of Northumbria, and not with any reference to the remains of any fortified Roman settlement near its site. The earliest buildings of the castle were reared, according to the chroniclers, by Robert Curthose, eldest son of the Conqueror, in 1080, on his return from the expedition into Scotland already referred to: the site chosen being on a hill, rising abruptly from the north bank of the river and commanding an extensive prospect over the valley of the Tyne, and the county of Durham to the south of it; it is, however, probable that the fort then built was a single tower or structure, but of sufficient importance to obtain the name of “the New Castle:” the construction of Tegular and permanent defences here is assigned to William Rufus, who, having assisted the inhabitants in enlarging and fortifying the town, began in 1172 the erection of the keep, at an expense, during that year, of £166 14s.: the work, “turris Novi Castelli super Tinam,” was continued through subsequent years up to 1177, and the total cost of this structure amounted to about £893: the extension of the castle buildings was pursued with great vigour and at great expense by King John, who erected a tower, excavated ditches and added new works on the south towards the river, probably along the margin of the Close and the Side, and including the half-moon tower at the south-east angle: in 1237, Henry III. met here Alexander II. of Scotland, and received a second visit from that monarch in the following year, during the holding of a parliament at Newcastle: the Black Gate, to be noticed subsequently, seems to have been erected in 1247, and between this date and 1267 large sums were expended on the fortress: on the 12th Dec. 1292, in the great hall of the castle, John Balliol did homage to Edward I. for the crown of Scotland, and up to 1324 much care was bestowed upon the defences; but at the beginning of 1334, owing to neglect, the castle was in a dilapidated state and during that year and up to 1377 extensive repairs had to be undertaken: in 1341, Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, seems to have been a prisoner in the castle, and in 1351, David II. King of Scotland: the governorship of the fortress at this time and for long years previously had been vested in the sheriffs, but in the reign of Henry VII. the office of constable was revived, and William Case esq. was appointed thereto in 1485: the keep, before the end of this reign, was converted into a prison and the great hall into a moot hall or assize court: in the early part of the reign of James I. the castle, or part of it, was leased to the “Incorporated Company of Tailors,” but in 1619 the whole, except the keep and moot hall, was leased to Alexander Stevenson esq. a page of the bedchamber, who began the erection of houses within the castle garth, but neglected the defences, so that in 1625, on the threatened attack of a hostile fleet from Dunkirk, the Corporation were obliged to appeal to the Crown for protection: Stevenson, the lessee, died in Oct. 1640, and eventually the Corporation, in 1650, purchased the interest of the existing lessee for £300, and took possession of the castle, which in 1640 had been surprised and taken, after the battle of Newburn (Aug. 28), by the Scottish forces under Sir Alexander Leslie, afterwards Earl of Leven, and commander, in 1644, of the Scottish army, which, in aid of the Parliament, besieged Newcastle during the month of October, and having taken the town by storm on the 19th, forced the surrender of the castle on the 27th: in April, 1646, Charles I. to avoid being made prisoner by the officers of the Parliament, took refuge with the Scottish army then at Newark, and on the breaking up of the camp retired with the Scots to Newcastle and here remained until he was delivered up to the Parliamentary Commissioners in 1647 for a sum of £400,000: after his execution the fortress was surveyed as part of the Crown property, and on the expiration of Stevenson’s lease in 1662 it was granted in Aug. 1664, to Charles, 1st baron Gerard of Brandon, afterwards Earl of Macclesfield, for 99 years; and although strongly opposed by the inhabitants, who urged their superior claims, the grant was confirmed; but in 1701, in the reign of William III. on the death of Charles (Gerard), 2nd Earl of Macclesfield, the Corporation obtained possession under a reversionary lease, and this expiring in 1732 it was regranted in 1736 to Col. George Liddell, but in 1780 the Liddells disposed of their interest to John Chrichloe Turner esq. for £2,625, and in 1802 it was sold by him to John Turner esq. who, in 1808, enfranchised the greater part of the property, the halfmoon bastion being given up to the Crown as a site for the new county court: in 1810-11 the portion previously held by the Turners was disposed of in lots, and the keep purchased by the Corporation for a sum of £600.

The Castle, in its complete form, occupied a triangular area of about 3 acres, encompassed by a curtain wall with bastions and gates, the apex being towards the north, where there was a barbican known as “the Black Gate,” which is still extant; the extreme length of the castle area from north to south was about 123 yards, and the greatest width, including the half-moon tower, was scarcely less: a cross wall divided the garth about equally into two baileys, with the keep towards the south-west angle of the upper or north bailey: the keep, finished in 1177, is a huge rectangular structure 62 by 56 feet, and about 90 feet in height; the walls of the lower stage, which is the earliest portion, being 17 feet thick, and those of the upper storeys, 12 feet; at the southern and north-east angles are slightly projecting square turrets, and at the north-west angle a larger hexagonal turret, on the summit of which is a smaller one, carrying a flagstaff; all these rise above the parapet of the keep, and have machicolated battlements, added by the Corporation after their purchase of the fabric in 1811, when also an arched roof of brick was constructed; the exterior is further strengthened by wide buttresses rising to the full height, and the whole is divided into four unequal stages by plain string courses: the chief portion of the ground floor, formerly used as a prison, is a noble vaulted chamber, the arched ribs radiating from a hollow central column, which served also to convey water from the castle well to the well-room in the third storey; on the ground floor also, but occupying the east side, is the chapel, consisting of a nave, containing a stoup, and a transeptal chancel, running east and west, with traces of an altar and round arches enriched with zigzag moulding; there are also some monuments, brought here from the cathedral and other places: the principal stairs lead over this chapel to the floor above, and at their head is a small chamber above the chancel called “the oriole,” and surrounded by a rich Norman arcading, restored about 1860, under the direction of Mr. John Dobson: the principal apartment on the second floor, also vaulted, is now the museum of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, and contains a highly interesting and valuable collection of British, Roman and mediaeval antiquities, and a fine library; the presidential chair of the Society, kept here, was made from oak recovered from the foundations of the Roman wall: on the third floor, reached by a newel staircase, is the great hall, 41 feet in height, and lighted by windows of a superior description, with steps rising to them from the floor, and surrounded by open galleries: the barrel roof of brick, erected at the cost of Alderman Forster about 1811, rises into the floor above: in this hall. 12 Dec. 1292, Edward I. received the homage of John Balliol; the lower part of the room contains various Roman antiquities obtained from the stations on the wall of Hadrian, and the walls are hung with banners displaying the arms of the borough, and those of the families of Dacre, de Clifford, de Harle, Delaval, Fenwick, Heaton, Hylton, Lambton, Liddell, Lumley, Mitford, Morley, Ogle, Percy, Scrope, Surtees and Widdrington: adjoining the hall on the right is the well-room, about 40 feet above the ground, and furnished with basins on each side, into which the water was delivered from the well below, which is 94 feet deep, and contains 46 feet of water; on the left is the king’s chamber, which it is believed was the sleeping room of the Plantagenet kings and of Charles I.; it has a singular round-headed fire-place: the fourth storey, now partly taken up with the roof of the great hall, was originally designed for defensive purposes; it is now reached by a newel staircase, and affords a striking view of the town, the lofty spire of the cathedral, the Tyne with its shipping and the town of Gateshead on the southern bank: on the battlements the heads of notorious criminals were accustomed to be exhibited, and in 1532 the heads and quarters of 17 Border thieves were so displayed here and on other eminences in the town. The cross wall dividing the upper and lower baileys of the castle crossed the garth at a distance of 8 or 10 yards south of the keep, from the old or west gate in the curtain on that side, to the south end of the moot hall on the east, but was interrupted nearly in the centre by a walled gateway leading to the keep entrance: the moot hall, or great hall of the palace, adjoined the east curtain, but was removed in 1809: the Black Gate, still standing near the north end of the Side, was erected by Henry III. and projected by curtain walls in a north-easterly direction from the northern angle of the castle area; the gate itself is elliptical in shape, nearly 60 feet in length from north to south, 35 from east to west, and about 60 feet high; the passage-way is barrel-vaulted, and arcaded on each side with trefoiled arches, and within, on both sides, are vaulted chambers with splayed oilets; on the south side is a small postern: in the rooms of this gateway are preserved a further collection of Roman antiquities belonging to the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries: in the three sides of the curtain were four other gateways, and several towers, including at the south-east a great bastion known as the “Half Moon;” the whole was defended by a wide and deep moat, beyond which were other defences.


The population of the municipal and parliamentary borough in 1861 was 109,108, in 1871 128,443, in 1881 145,359, and in 1891, 186,300.

 Place  Type  Number
 All Saints  parish  28,326
 Byker  township  32,332
 Elswick  township  51,608
 Heaton  township  8,567
 Jesmond  township  8,442
 St. Andrew  parish  19,637
 St. John  parish  3,623
 St. Nicholas  parish  3,501
Westgate  township  30,264
TOTAL:    186,300


 Place  Area  Rateable value (March 1894)
 All Saints  280  149,250
 Benwell  1,296  34,265
 Byker  876  86,408
 Elswick  806  203,843
 Fenham  433  1,930
 Heaton  902  44,678
 Jesmond  695  63,956
 St. Andrew  1,435  173,408
 St. John  87  112,378
 St. Nicholas  44  57,744
 Westgate  225  131,054
 TOTAL    £ 1,051,914

The population of the ecclesiastical parishes in 1891 was:-St. Ann, 5,835; St. Cuthbert, 5,113; St. Matthew, 7,514; St. Peter, 4,036; Christ Church, Shieldfield, 12,290.

St. Silas’ parish was formed out of the parish of St. Michael, Byker, in the year 1884. The church, in Clifford street, Byker, was erected in 1885-86, at a cost, including the site, of £6,000: it is a building of stone, in the Early Gothic style, consisting of chancel, nave, north aisle and organ chamber, and has sittings for 700 persons. The register dates from the year 1886. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £250, with residence, in the gift of the vicar of St. Michael’s, and held since 1889 by the Rev. Joseph Duncan, of St. Bees and surrogate. The population in 1891 was 14,450. During the construction of a road at the east end of Byker bridge, in Nov. 1884, a Roman altar was found, 1 foot 10 inches high and 11 inches wide, with a defaced inscription.

St. Anthony's is a straggling village near the river Tyne, within the city and county of Newcastle, and was formed into a new ecclesiastical district out of St. Michael’s, Byker, June 23, 1868. The church of St. Anthony, erected in 1868 at a cost of £2,300, is a plain structure of brick, consisting of chancel, nave, south aisle and a turret containing one bell: in October, 1884, a stained window was placed in the chancel and in 1889 it was decorated and a reredos and oak chancel screen erected: there are 350 sittings. The register dates from the year 1868. The living is a vicarage, average tithe rent-charge £75, gross yearly value £278, with residence, in the gift of Lady Northbourne, and held since 1890 by the Rev. John Ritchie Trotter L.Th, of Durham University. The population in 1891 was 6,460. The church of St. Lawrence, a chapel of ease to St. Anthony’s, at the bottom of Raby street, South Byker, is a building of iron, erected in 1884 at a cost of £760, and has 300 sittings.

St. Peter’s and Ouseborn are included within the township of Byker and the city and county of Newcastle. St. Peter’s Lecture Hall and Reading Room, formerly a Methodist chapel, was purchased by the vicar, and is now used as a reading, temperance and mission room, and is open every evening except Sundays. The manufacture of chemicals and lead is carried on here extensively; there is also a stone quarry.

St. Paul’s, High Elswick, is an ecclesiastical parish, formed April 21, 1846, out of the parish of St. John. The church, erected in 1858, is a building of stone in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave and aisles, and has 897 sittings, of which 252 are free. The register dates from the year 1858. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £340, with residence, in the gift of trustees, and held since 1876 by the Rev. Lewis Sanders. The area is 190 acres; the population in 1891 was 11,241.

St. Philip’s, High Elswick, is an ecclesiastical parish, formed Dec. 11, 1868, from the parish of St. Paul. The church, in Longley street, is a building in the Gothic style, consisting of chancel, nave, north aisle and a turret containing one bell: there are 450 sittings. The register dates from the year 1873. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Newcastle alternately, and held since 1893 by the Rev. William Edmund Moll M.A. of Worcester College, Oxford. The area is 320 acres; the population in 1891 was 24,430.

St. Augustine’s, North Elswick, is an ecclesiastical parish, formed August 12, 1892, from St. James, Benwell and St. Philip, High Elswick. The church, in Brighton grove, partly erected in 1892 and still (1894) unfinished, is a building of stone, consisting of nave and aisles: it has sittings. The register dates from the year 1893. The living is a perpetual curacy, not yet (1894) endowed, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1893 by the Rev. George Miles.

St. Stephen’s, Low Elswick, is an ecclesiastical parish, formed July 10, 1868, from the parish of St. Paul, High Elswick. The church, in Clumber street, Scotswood road, opened in 1868, is a building of stone, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and a tower with spire, containing a very fine peal of bells, presented by a parishioner: the organ was presented by Lord Armstrong C.B: there are 1,100 sittings. The register dates from the year 1868. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £340, with residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Newcastle, and held since 1892 by the Rev. Ralph Nicholson M.A. of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge. The parish is inhabited by the working classes. The area is 28 acres; the population in 1891 was 17,565.

St. George’s is an ecclesiastical parish, formed in 1888 out of the parish of Jesmond. Thechurch, erected at a cost of £30,000, solely defrayed by Charles Mitchell esq. of Jesmond Towers, is a building of stone, chiefly in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, south porch, baptistery at the west end and a campanile tower, 180 feet high, in the Italian style, situated at the south-east angle of the building and containing a peal of 8 bells: the altar and reredos, of Pavonazzo marble, are richly carved and approached by steps of marble and jasper; and above the latter are figures of Our Lord and archangels in mosaic, the chancel walls being decorated with the same material: the east window is stained: the baptistery is separated from the nave by a stone screen of three bays: the font consists of a basin of Algerian onyx, supported on a central stem and twelve smaller shafts of rouge jasper, arising from an alabaster base: the pulpit is of carved oak, supported by shafts of red jasper on an alabaster base: the church affords 850 sittings. The register dates from the year 1888. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £530, with residence, in the gift of C. Mitchell esq. and held since 1888 by the Rev. Somerset Edward Pennefather M.A. of Trinity College, Dublin, hon. canon of Newcastle, and surrogate. The population in 1891 was 4,241. A vicarage house was erected in 1890. The Parish Hall, close to the church, is a building of stone in the Gothic style, and will hold 400 persons. On a hill, about 1 mile north-east from Jesmond church, stand the ruins of the chapel of the ancient hospital of St. Mary the Virgin, formerly existing here, and once a great resort of pilgrims from all parts. The area of the township is 654 acres: the population in 1871 was 3,068; in 1881, 6,109 in 1801, 8.442.


Places of Worship, Churches

*** V signifies Vicarage; R, Rectory.

  • Cathedral Church St. Nicholas’, v. St. Nicholas square, Rev. Canon Arthur Thomas Lloyd D.D. (surrogate); Rev. A. B. Turner B.A. & Rev. H. Barff B.A. curates; patron, The Bishop of Newcastle; value, £517; pop. 3,501; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 7 p.m.; daily 8 a.m. & 5 p.m.
  • All Saints, R. Pilgrim street, Rev. Owen Charles Carr M.A. (surrogate); Rev. Ernest R. Dawe B.A. curate; patron, Vicar of Newcastle; value, £254; pop. 6,396; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 3.15 & 7 p.m.; 8 a.m. & 5.30 p.m. daily.
  • St. Andrew’s, v. Newgate street, Rev. John Moore Lister M.A. (surrogate); Rev. Frederick Stone B.A. & Rev. William George Paddey, curates; patron, Vicar of Newcastle; value, £283; pop. 12,576; 7.15, 8, 9.30 & 10.45 a.m. & 3.30, 4.15 & 7p.m.; daily 7.30 & 7.45 a.m. & 5 p.m.
  • St. John the Baptist, v. Westgate road, Rev. I. W. Milner M.A.(surrogate); Rev. E. C. Shepherd M.A. curate; patron, Vicar of Newcastle; value, £300; pop. 8,050; 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 7 p.m.; matins, daily 9.30 a.m.; Thur. 7 p.m. Advent & Lent.
  • Christ Church, v. Shieldfield, Rev. Herbert Lunn M.A. (surrogate); Rev. J. H. Ison, curate; patron, Bishop of Newcastle; value, £300; pop. 12,290; 10.45 a.m. & 3 on 3rd Sun. in month & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. & Fri. 10.30 a.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Jesmond (St. Mary), v. Jesmond road (vacant), Rev. Arthur Heyward Tredennick B.A. & Rev. W. L. Bell, curates; patrons, Five trustees; value, £500; pop. 7,389; 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 7 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.; Fri. 11.30 a.m.
  • St. Aidan’s, Glue House lane, Rev. Edward Arkless; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Ann’s, v. City road, Rev. William Bernard East L.Th.; patron, Bishop of Newcastle; value, £243; pop. 5,835; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Anthony’s, v. St. Anthony’s, Rev. J. R. Trotter L.Th.; Rev. R. Trotter, curate; patron, Lady Northbourne; value, £300; pop. 6,430; 8 & 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.15 & all saints’ days, 8 a.m.
  • St. Augustine’s, v. Brighton grove, Rev. George Miles; patron, Bishop of Newcastle; no endowment; pop. 10,000; 8 & 11 a.m. & 3.15 & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. & Fri. 7.30 p.m.; daily 8 a.m.
  • St. Cuthberfc’s, v. Melbourne street. Rev. William Edward Nowell D.D.; patrons, Crown & Bishop alternately; value, £300; pop. 5,113; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 3.15 & 7 p.m.; Mon. Tues. & Fri. at 8.30 a.m.; Wed. 11 a.m.; Thur. 8 a.m. & 7.30 p.m.; Thur. (from Nov. to Easter), 7.30 p.m.; saints’ days, 8 a.m.
  • St. George’s, Osborne road, West Jesmond, Rev. Canon S.E. Pennefather M.A. (surrogate); Rev. W. D. Heelas M.A. curate; patron, C. Mitchell esq.; value, £600; pop.4,241; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; daily 7.30 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.
  • St. Jude’s, Clarence crescent, Shieldfield, Rev. Charles Digby Seymour; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Lawrence [chapel of ease to St. Anthony’s], Raby street, Byker, Rev. J. R. Trotter L.Th.; Rev. R. Trotter, curate; 8 & 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Luke’s, v. Claremont street, Moor edge, Rev. R. Raggett M.A. patron, Bishop of Newcastle; value, £300; pop. 4,500; 11 a.m. & 1st Sun. in month at 3, & 7 p.m.; Wed.& Fri. at 11.30 a.m. & evensong at 5 p.m. daily.
  • St. Mark’s Iron Church, Rye hill, Rev. Ralph Nicholson M.A. (vicar); 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Mary the Virgin, Westmoreland road, Rev. Robert Anchor Thompson M.A. (master); patrons, Corporation of Newcastle; value, £600; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; 10 a.m. daily.
  • St. Matthew’s, P.C. Summerhill place, Westgate road, Rev. Oliver Churchyard B.A. (surrogate & hon. canon); Rev. A. M. Parkes M.A. curate; patrons, Crown & Bishop alternately; value, £294; pop. 7,514; 8 & 11 a.m. & 3.15 &7 p.m.; daily 8 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.; additional on Wed. & Fri. 7.30 p.m.; saints’ or other holy days, 8 & 11 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.
  • St. Michael’s, v. Byker, Rev. George Robert Taylor B.A.; patrons, Crown & Bishop alternately; value, £342; pop. 18,681; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Paul’s, High Elswick, v. Havelock street, Rev. Canon Lewis Sanders (surrogate); Rev. William Copeland, curate; patrons, trustees; value, £330; pop. 11,241; 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Peter’s, v. Oxford street, Rev. John Wilkinson M.A. (surrogate); patron, Bishop of Newcastle; value, £300; pop. 4,036; 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 7 p.m.; daily 8 a.m. & 5 p.m.; saints’ & other holy days, 7.30 p.m.
  • St, Philip’s, High Elswick, v. Longley street, Rev. W. E. Moll M.A,; Rev. William Francis Deey M.A, & Rev. David Frazer Allen B.A. curates; patrons, Crown & Bishop alternately; value, £300; pop. 24,440; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; daily 8 a.m. & 5 p.m.
  • St. Silas’, Clifford street, Byker, Rev. Joseph Duncan; patron, Rev. T. H. Atkinson; value, £250; pop. 14,450; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Stephen's, Low Elswick, v. Clumber street, Scotswood road, Rev. Ralph Nicholson M.A. (surrogate); Rev. William Woollett Loudon, Rev. Peter Allan & Rev. W. E. D. Falla, curates; patron, Bishop; value, £340; pop. 17,565; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 7 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m. St. Thomas the Martyr, Barras bridge, Rev. Alexander James Harrison B.D.; patrons, The Mayor & Corporation; value, £500; 8 & 10.45 a.m. & 3 & 7 p.m.; Thur. 3 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Trinity Chapel, Trinity house, Broad chare, Rev. W. L. Cunningham (chaplain); patrons, Master & Brethren of Trinity house; Mon. 10 a.m.


  • Burdon terrace, Rev. Hugh Falconer; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Clayton street west (John Knox), Rev. Alexander Phimester M.A.; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Gresham place (St. George’s), Rev. James G. Potter; 10.45 а.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Heaton road, Rev. Joseph Rorke; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 8 p.m.
  • Leazes lane (Blackett street); 6.30 p.m.
  • Melbourne street (Mission church), various; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • New Bridge street (Trinity), Rev. N. A. Ross M.A., LL.D.; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Northcote street (Arthur’s hill), Rev. John Conway; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Rye hill (Erskine), Rev. G. C. Chisholm; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 8 p.m.
  • Wesley street (Mission), various; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Westmorland road, Rev. John Thompson M.A.; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 8 p.m.

Catholic Churches

  • St. Mary of the Assumption (Cathedral), Clayton street west, Very Rev. Canon Robert J. Franklin, Rev. John Lamph, Rev. Thomas Reilly & Rev. Mark Habell, priests; 7, 8, 8.50 & 11 a.m. & 3 & 6.30 p.m.; 7.30, 8 & 8.30 a.m. Mon. Tues. & Thur. 8 p.m.
  • St. Andrew, Worswick street, Pilgrim street, Rev. R. Collins & Rev. Joseph Newsham, priests; 7, 8, 9.30 & 11 a.m. & 3 (for children) & 6.30 p.m.; 7 & 9 a.m. daily; Fri. 8 p.m.
  • St. Dominic’s, Red Barns, Very Rev. Edmund Buckler (prior), Rev. Lewis Weldon (sub-prior), Rev. Austin Maltus, Rev. Lawrence Peach, Rev. Lewis Thompson, Rev. Gabriel Whitacre & Rev. Bartholomew Moran, priests; mass, 7, 8 & 9.30; high mass 11 a.m. & 3.30 & 6.30 p.m.; 7, 8 & 9 a.m.; Thur. 8 p.m.
  • St. George’s, Bell’s close, Scotswood, Rev. Fras. Kuyte, priest; 9, 10 & 11 a.m. & 6 p.m.; daily 8 a.m.
  • St. Michael, Elswick, Clumber street, Very Rev. Canon Joseph Dunn, Rev. Francis Holmes & Rev. Charles Dunn, priests; 8, 9.30 & 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; every day 8.30 a.m. & Fri. 8 p.m.
  • Catholic Apostolic, Gloucester street, William Wood (chief minister); 6 & 10 a.m. & 2, 5 & 6 p.m.; Mon. 5 p.m.; Tues. 6 a.m. & 5 p.m.; Wed. 9 a.m. & 5 p.m.; Thur. 6 a.m. & 5 p.m.; Fri. 9 a.m. & 5 p.m.; sat. 6 a.m. & 5 p.m.


  • Jewish Synagogue, Albion street, Chief Rabbi, Rev. L. Mendolsen; Fri. 7 & every 14 day 7.30 p.m. sat. 9 a.m. & 4 & sunset; Mon. & Thur. 7 a.m. summer; 7.30 a.m. winter; Sat. 8.30 a.m. & 3 p.m.; festivals 8.30 a.m.

Society of Friends

  • 151 Pilgrim street; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 10.30 a.m.


  • Westgate road, Rev. J. T. Forbes M.A.; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Osborne road, Jesmond, Rev. Thos. D. Landels M.A.; 10.45 а.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Rye Hill, Warrington road, Rev. W. Walsh; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Denmark street, Byker, Rev. Thos. D. Landels M.A.; 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.


  • Bath lane, Rev. Allen D. Jeffrey; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Mon. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. James’ (New), Northumberland road; Rev. John Henry Jowett M.A.; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Tindal street, Westgate road (St. Paul’s), Rev. Fred Hibbert; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Clayton street west, Rev. J. W. Bowman M.A., B.D.; 10.30 a.m., & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Heaton road, Rev. W. Glover; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.

Methodist New Connexion

  • Camden street (Salem), 10.30 a.m. & 6p.m.; Mon. 7.15 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Falconer street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Jesmond vale, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Fri. 7.30 alternately.
  • Rendel street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • St. Peter's quay, 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Scotswood (Chapel terrace), 2 & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Snow street, 10.45 a.m. & 2 6 p.m.; Mon. 7.30 p.m.
  • Walker road (St. Peter’s), 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.

New Church, or Swedenboroian

  • Cambridge street, 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • 23 Nun street, 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.

Primitive Methodists, circuits 1 & 2.

  • Ballast Hills (Leighton street), 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Derby street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Heaton road (Leighton chapel), 10.30 a.m., & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Nelson street, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • St.Anthony’s, 10.30 a.m. & 2 & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • South Gosforth, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Walker (Church street), 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Strickland street, a & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Maple street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • West street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • Lemington, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.


  • New Bridge street (Church of the Div. Unity), Rev. Frank Walters; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.

United Methodist Free Church

  • Coxlodge, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Gloucester street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Gosforth, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Mon, 7 p.m.
  • Prudhoe street, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Shields road, Byker, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Spital tongues, Ancrum street, 6 p.m.; Mon. 7.30 p.m.
  • Walker road (St. Peter’s), 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Hamsterley road,10.30 a.m., & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Blaydon, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Kenton, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Buckingham street, 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 8 p.m.
  • West Moor, 5.30 p.m.; Tues. 6.45 p.m.
  • Hazelrigg, 2.15 & 5.30 p.m.
  • Killingworth, 10.30 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.
  • Dinnington, 2.30 & 5.30 p.m.
  • Dudley, 10.30 a.m. & 5.30 p.m.
  • Middle Brunton, 6 p.m.
  • Wallsend, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.
  • Shieltield, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.

Wesleyan Methodist


  • Brunswick place, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Jesmond, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • South Gosforth, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Gosforth East, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Gallowgate, 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • West Moor, 5.30 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Seaton Burn, 2.30 & 5.30 p.m.; Tues. 6.30 p.m.
  • Palmersville, 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Long Benton, 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Diana street, 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.


  • Blenheim street (41), 10.30 a.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Temple street, 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • Elswick East terrace, 6.30 p.m.


  • Dilston road, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Park road, 10.30 a.m., & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • Dunn street, 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Wesley ball, Beaumont street, 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Paradise, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Bell’s Close, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • North Scotswood, 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Ponteland, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Mason Dinnington, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Prestwick, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Milburne, 6 p.m.


  • Elswick road, 10.30 a.m. &6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Heddon-on-the-Wall, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • New Benwell, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Newburn, 2.30 & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Throckley, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Walbottle, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Delaval school, 6 p.m.
  • Westgate road, 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Coronation Pit, 6 p.m.; Mon. 7 p.m.
  • Denton Burn, 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.


  • Clarence street, 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Heaton road, Heaton (Cuthbert Bainbridge Memorial), 10.30 a.m. & &.30 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • City road, 10.30 a.m.& 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Wallsend, 10.30 a.m.& 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • St. Anthony’s, Walker road, 10.45 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Walker, Church street, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7 p.m.
  • Walker gate, 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m. Wed. 7 p.m.

Other Denominations

  • Children’s Temple, 66-A, Percy street, J. C. Halliday, conductor; 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Christadelphians, Mechanics’ institute, Church street, Walker, ministers various; 2.30 & 6 p.m.
  • Christadelphians, Assembly Rooms, Royal arcade, ministers various; 2.30 & 6.30 p.m.
  • Christian (unsectarian), Long row, Spital tongues & 65 Morpeth street, W. Bell, sec.; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Mon 7.30 p.m.
  • Christian Brethren, 374 Scotswood road; 10.30 a.m. & 2 & 6.30 p.m.
  • Christian Brethren’s Meeting House, Gloucester street, Mason Watson, elder; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 8 p.m.
  • Plymouth Brethren, Walker road, Walker; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.
  • St. Johannes Danish Lutheran Church, Maple street, Rev. Christian Maniche; 11 a.m.
  • Salvation Army, City road; 7 & 11 a.m. & 2.30 & 7.30 p.m.
  • Salvation Army, Buxton street; 10.30 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.
  • Salvation Army barracks, 177 Pilgrim street; 5 to 6 p.m.
  • Salvation Army; barracks, Temperance hall, 65 Grafton Street, Byker; 7 & 10.30 a.m. & 2.30 & 6.30 p.m.; every evening, 7.30 p.m.
  • Sandemanian (or Glassite) Meeting House, Picton terrace, New Bridge street, ministers various; 10.30 a.m. & 2.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.20 p.m.
  • Christian Lay Church, Pine street, ministers various; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.


  • Primitive Brethren, Bath lane, ministers various; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7.30 p.m.
  • Church of Humanity, St. Mary’s place, ministers various; 7 pm.
  • Sailors’ Bethel, Horatio street, North shore, William Jordan, colporteur; David Moffatt, hon. sec.; W. J. Noble, treasurer; T. G. Reed, missionary; 2.30 & 6.30 p.m.; Thurs. 7 p.m.; Danish service at 4 p.m. weekly.
  • Young Men’s Christian Association, Blackett street, ministers various; 9.30 a.m. & 2.45 & 7 p.m.; Thur. Fri. & Sat. 8 p.m.

Mission Rooms

  • Albert Hall, 1 Flora street, Byker; 6.45 p.m.
  • All Saints’, 39 Silver street.
  • Benwell Parish, Mill lane, Rev. Canon Bromley M.A.; 6 30 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Byker (Church of England), Robinson street; 6 p.m.; Thur.7 p.m.
  • Byker (Church of England), 207 Shipley st.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Jesmond Church, Brandling village; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.
  • St. Aidan’s, Elswick Boys’ school, Rev. Edward Arkless, curate in charge; 10.45 a.m. & 7 p.m.
  • St. Alban’s, Jefferson street.
  • St. Ann’s, 24 Lime street; 6.30 p.m.; Fri. 7 p.m.
  • St. Cuthbert’s, New road; 2.30 p.m.; Mon. 2.15 p.m.
  • St. Jude’s, Rosedale street, Rev. John Rees B.A.; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • St. Matthew's, 114 Buckingham street, Rev. Oliver Churchyard, 10 a.m. & 2 p.m.
  • St.Matthew’s, 6 Lawson st.; Rev. Oliver Churchyard B.A. vicar; Rev. Wm. Dixon Blachford Curry M.A.; 10 a.m. & 2 p.m.
  • St. Nicholas’, 84 Close; 2.30 & 7 p.m.; Wed. 8 p.m.
  • St. Wilfred’s, 116 Blandford street, ministers various; 8.30 & 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. & Fri. 7.30 p.m.
  • Brinkburn, Brinkburn street; Sunday, 6.30 p.m.
  • Brunei Street School.
  • Deaf & Dumb (adult), 16 New Bridge street; 11 a.m., & 6 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Delaval terrace, Scotswood road, Benwell (Methodist New Connexion), Rev. Henry Hope; 10 a.m. & 6 p.m.
  • Eldon, 193 Pilgrim street; Mon. Wed. & Fri. at 7 p.m.
  • Fisher st. Walker (Presbyterian), Rev. G. J. Goodman; 6 p.m.
  • Hindhaugh street (26); 6 p.m.
  • Jewish Evangelical Mission House, 8 Swinburne place, Jacob Jacobson, missionary.
  • Liverpool street (Presbyterian); 6.30 p.m.; Sat. 7.30 p.m.
  • Ouseburn, St. Ann’s row, New road, John Batey, missionary; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Thur. 7.30 p.m.
  • Presbyterian, Clara st. Benwell, Rev. Wm. K. Duthie; 6 30 p.m.
  • Prudhoe street; 7 p.m.; Mon. & Wed. 7.30 p.m.; Miss Emma Watson, superintendent.
  • Stone street (Newcastle Brethren); 6.30 p.m.
  • Tulloch street.
  • Unitarian, 182 Parker street, Byker; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.
  • United Methodist, 62 Buckingham street; 9 a.m. & 6 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, 62 Back Elswick street.
  • Wesleyan, Dunn st.; 11 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, Glue House lane, George Summers, lay missioner; 10.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7.30 p m.
  • Wesleyan, New road; 10 a.m. & 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, Thornborough street; 6.30 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, Denton road, Scotswood; 6 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, 36 Diana street; 6.30 p.m.; Wed. 7 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, Temple St. hall; 10.30 a.m. & 6 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.
  • Wesleyan, 48 Gallowgate; 6.30 p.m.; Tues. 7 p.m.



  • University of Durham College of Medicine, Northumberland road.
  • Durham College or Science, College road.



The Royal Grammar School.

Founded A.D. 1525 by Thomas Horsley, & in Westmorland road, consists of two large buildings in the Gothic style, erected in 1866-70 by the Town Council of Newcastle, chiefly from the funds of the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin. The school was formerly held in the old Hospital buildings in Neville street, opposite to where the Central station now stands: the present building consists of eight spacious school rooms to hold 350 scholars, large & excellently equipped chemical & physical laboratories & headmaster’s house, with dining hall, dormitories, lavatories & class rooms for the use of boarders. In front of the school buildings is a play-ground of about 2 acres, on which are tennis courts & large gymnasium.

Allan's Endowed Schools.

Established in 1705 by Eleanor Allan & subsequently enriched by the gifts of later benefactors, were reconstituted by the Charity Commissioners in 1877, & a new school built in Northumberland road in 1880, for 150 boys & 150 girls. There are 60 scholarships, half of which are to be given to children attending the public elementary schools of Newcastle & the other half to pupils attending the schools on the foundation; chemical & physical laboratories are attached to the boys’ school. The schools are managed by a body of eleven governors, of whom five are ex-officio, three are chosen by the Corporation & three are co-optative. The annual income of the foundation is about £900.

Rutherford College.

Founded by the late Dr. J. H. Rutherford in 1870, Comprises the institutions formerly known as the School of Science & Art, in Corporation street, founded in 1878, & the Technical College, in Dean street, founded in 1886, & is arranged in two departments: (1) a public day school of the highest grade & (2) an evening college preparing students for the examinations of the University of London for degrees in Arts & Science: the new buildings, built at a cost of £20,000 & opened by H.R.H. The Duke of York K.G. on Thursday, April 5, 1894, are arranged for upwards of 2,000 students, & include a central hall, lecture rooms, various laboratories, library & reading rooms, all well equipped & efficiently ventilated; there are 30 scholarships and an exhibition of £50 yearly to Cambridge university.

Technical Education, County Council Scheme.

Office, 1 St. Nicholas buildings; Chas. Williams, sec.

For the promotion of technical education within the county of Northumberland, the County Council has appointed a Technical Education Committee together with sub-committees consisting of members of the general committee & selected representative members. District & local committees have also been appointed throughout the county, by whom local arrangements are made for instruction by lectures or classes & recommendations or suggestions forwarded to the central committee. The subjects in which it is proposed to give instruction are: agriculture, mining, engineering & shipbuilding, general industries, domestic economy, & these will be taught, in the case of children who have passed the usual standards, by the formation of extra-standard classes & by the general establishment of night-schools & continuation classes. Scholarships will also be awarded enabling scholars to pursue their studies at some place of higher education. In the case of older persons engaged in business & desiring to acquire a special or general scientific or technical training, scholarships are also awarded. In addition to the work carried on at local centres, opportunities will be afforded for pursuing advanced studies at central institions. The whole amount received under the “Local Taxation (Customs & Excise) Act, 1890,” is devoted by the County Council to the purposes of technical education. The amount received for the year ending March 31st, 1893, was £7,734 18s.

Heaton Science & Art School, erected in 1892 at a cost of £10,000, for 1,000 students; average attendance, 430.

Science & Art School, Elswick Works Mechanics’ Institute, Scotswood road; average attendance, 150.

All Saints’ Charity School, Carliol square (boys, girls & infants), for 323 boys, 379 girls & 150 infants; average attendance, 480.

The Ragged & Industrial School, off the City road, on a site formerly known as “Garth Heads,” was established in Sandgate in 1847, its object then being simply to feed & educate 50 poor children: it was next removed to Gibson street, & subsequently to the present site. It is a structure of brick with stone dressings, & has dormitories for 140 boys & 60 girls; the average attendance in 1892 was 128 boys & 54 girls. The children who live on the premises are such as come under the provisions of the Industrial Schools & Elementary Education Acts: other children attend during the day only, receiving food & education, & returning to their homes at night: one half the boys are under school instruction each day & the other half are employed in various industrial occupations: the boys in the workshops are under the care of trade instructors, & a large amount of work is accomplished in printing, tailoring, shoe making, sack making & firewood chopping: there is an excellent boys’ band of brass & reed instruments. In connection with these schools a seaside home is maintained at Whitley; & all well-conducted children have the privilege of a holiday at the seaside in the course of the year. The schools, certified as Industrial schools in 1859, & under the inspection of the Home Office, are managed by a committee of gentlemen; honorary secretaries, Dr. Robert Spence Watson & J. T. Oliver esq.; treasurer, George A. Fenwick; secretaries of the ladies’ committee, Mrs. R. S. Watson & Miss M. Lambert; superintendent, Ralph Willoughby; matron, Miss M. J. Dowman; schoolmaster, J. H. Murray; assistant schoolmaster, I. Purvis; schoolmistress, Miss Grant; assistant schoolmistress, Miss Rose Bowey; general work master, Walter Dodd; master printer, James Hewitt; master shoe maker, W. Nicholson; boys’ warden, W. J. Taylor; band master, J. H. Amers; medical officer, Adam Wilson L.R.C.P. Edin.


School Board.

The Board was formed January 25, 1871, & consists of 15 members.

School Board Offices, 33 Grainger street west.

Meetings of the Board are held on the third Monday in each month at 2.30 p.m.

Board Schools.

  • Arthur’s Hill, Snow street (mixed & infants), erected at a cost, including site (£1,878), of £14,254, for 330 boys, 329 girls & 397 infants; mixed, 800 on rolls; infants, on rolls 500; total average attendance, 1,068.
  • Bentinck, Mill lane (mixed & infants), opened July 24, 1882, at a cost of £10,360, for 600 boys & girls & 400 infants; average attendance, 1,014.
  • Blenheim Street, opened January 11, 1892; average attendance, infants 99, juniors 191.
  • Byker, Heaton Park road (mixed & infants), erected in 1879, at a cost, including site (£1,845), of £11,186, for 339 boys, 338 girls & 550 infants; average attendance, 1,158.
  • Chillingham Road.
  • Diana Street (infants), for 190 children; average attendance, 188.
  • Grafton Street; average attendance, 309.
  • Longley Street; average attendance, 287.
  • Ouseburn.
  • Royal Jubilee Board Schools, City road (mixed), rebuilt in 1885, for 1,100 children; average attendance, 1,042.
  • St. Peter’s, Walker New Road (mixed & infants), erected at a cost, including site (£1,025), of £13,176, for 338 boys, 338 girls & 400 infants; average attendance, 1,060.
  • Scotswood Road, Mitford street (mixed & infants), erected in 1882-3, at a cost of £13,000, including site (£3,701), for 646 boys & girls & 364 infants; average attendance, 957.
  • Spital Tongues, Morpeth street (infants), opened Jan. 1, 1881, at a cost of £1,824,215 children; average attendance, 215.
  • Tindal Street; average attendance, 228.
  • Todd’s Nook, Darnell street; average attendance, 1,195.
  • Victoria Jubilee, Union road; average attendance, 935.
  • Westmorland Road, Bell terrace (mixed & infants), erected at a cost, including site (£1,584), of £13,627, for 316 boys, 330 girls & 405 infants.

Day Industrial, City road; Miss Wilhelmina C Dewar, mistress.

Pupil Teachers’ Centre, Prudhoe street.

National Schools.

  • Byker Church Schools, Headlam street (mixed), erected for for 300 children.
  • Christ Church, Henry st. (mixed & infants), for 500 boys, 500 girls & 170 infants.
  • Holy Saviour, Sugley fields, Scotswood (boys & infants); boys on roll, 155; average attendance, 126; infants on roll, 95; average attendance, 51.
  • St. Andrew’s, Leazes lane (mixed & infants), for 277 boys, 277 girls & 117 infants; average attendance, 272 boys, 202 girls & 84 infants.
  • St. Anthony’s (mixed), built in 1863, for 150 boys & 89 girls; average attendance, 220.
  • St. John’s, Sunderland street (mixed), built in 1839, for 450 boys & girls.
  • St. John’s, Bath lane (infants), for 250 children; average attendance, 175.
  • St. Nicholas’, Hanover street (boys, girls & infants), erected in 1891, at a cost of £4,000, for 200 boys, 200 girls & 140 infants; average attendance, boys 165, girls 195 & infants 120.
  • St. Paul’s, Surgeons’ hall, Victoria street (mixed & infants), opened in 1863, for 216 boys, 216 girls & 147 infants; average attendance, juniors 325, infants 103.
  • St. Stephen’s, Brunei street (girls), for 170 girls.
  • St. Thomas’, Vine lane (mixed), for 253 boys & 214 girls.

Catholic Schools.

  • St. Cuthbert Grammar School, Bath lane; Rev. Horace K. Mann, headmaster.
  • St. Andrew’s, Manors (mixed & infants), for 420 boys, 275 girls & 194 infants; average attendance, 500.
  • St. Dominic, Red Bams (boys, girls & infants), for 298 boys, 298 girls & 141 infants; average attendance, 556.
  • St. Lawrence, Felton street (mixed & Infants), erected in 1884, for 425 children; average attendance, 330.
  • St. Mary’s, Oyster Shell lane, for 430 boys; average attendance, 360.
  • St. Mary’s, Villa place, for 434 girls & 364 infants; average attendance, 340 girls & 250 infants.
  • St. Michael’s, Brunei terrace (mixed).
  • St. Michael’s, Clumber st. (mixed for infants), for 278 boys, 277 girls & 160 infants.

British. & other Schools.

  • Bath Lane Elementary Schools, Corporation street (mixed & infants), for 610 boys, 610 girls & 280 infants.
  • British & Foreign Union, Bath lane (mixed), for 54 boys & 164 girls; average attendance, 182.
  • Camden Street Day School, Shieldfield (mixed), for 200 boys & 210 girls.
  • Elswick Works, Sanderson street (infants), for 440 children; average attendance, 420.
  • Elswick Works, Scotswood road (mixed), for 1,230 boys, 1,080 girls & 450 infants; average attendance, boys 850, girls 720, infants 412.
  • Ford Pottery, Ford street (girls), for 300 girls; average attendance, 183.
  • Heaton Road Unsectarian School, held in the Science & Art School, North view, Heaton (mixed), for 290 boys & 290 girls; average attendance, 560.
  • Heaton Road Unsectarian, Heaton road, Byker (infants).
  • Hebrew School, Leazes lane (infant day), Rev. S. Friedeberg, headmaster.
  • Methodist Free Church, Henry street (mixed), for 116 boys & 116 girls; average attendance, 200.
  • Prudhoe Street Mission (mixed & infants), for 250 boys, 230 girls & 200 infants; average attendance, mixed school, 410; infants’ school, 120.
  • Wesleyan Day, Clarence street (mixed &; infants), for 182 boys, 150 girls & 180 infants; average attendance, 401.
Newcastle upon Tyne


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